History, Period 4
January 7, 1996
Iraq: A Country on the Rise
mineral wealth, vegetation, ect.
boundaries are 2,222 miles long. With 906 miles bordering Iran, 83 miles bordering
Jordan, 149 miles bordering Kuwait, 502 miles bordering Saudi Arabia, 376 miles
bordering Turkey, and a coastline 36 miles long. The terrain in Iraq is mostly broad
cloudless summers. The northernmost regions along Iranian and Turkish borders
(ocean) clams are just the continental shelf on their coastline, and twelve nautical miles
sovereignty over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway. In April of 1991, Iraq officially accepted
that were set in it’s 1963 agreement with Kuwait, and ending all claims to the Bubiyan
council reaffirmed the finality of the Boundary Demarcation Commission’s decisions.
dispute with Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates river.
degradation (caused by salinization), land erosion, and deserification. Iraq has 12% of
it’s land still arable, with 1% permanent crops, 9% meadows and pastures, 3% forest and
wood land, 4% irrigated farm land, and 75% is used for other various things (housing,
board, 8,000 sawnwood, 207,000 metric tons of phosphate fertilizer, and 409,000 metric
tons of nitrogen fertilizer.
also has 3,880,000 radios in use (about 205 per 1,000 people). Iraq has 6 newspaper
publications, with a circulation of 650,000 a day (about 34 per 1,000 people). This
causes a 1,797 kilograms of newsprint to be consumed per 1,000 people. Iraq has one
FM station and 16 AM broadcast stations, and 13 TV stations. Reconstruction of Iraq’s
telecommunication system began after Desert Storm was over. It includes of many
satellite earth stations, 1 INTELSAT satellite and 1 GORIZONT satellite over the
Atlantic Ocean, 1 INTELSAT satellite over the Indian Ocean, and 1 ARABSAT in the
Intersputnik system. Their country telephone code is 964.
without prior notice. The Al-Basrah and Umm Qasar Seaports are closed because of
Syrian segment of the railroad linking Iraq to Turkey and Europe has been closed since
1982. Border crossing points between and Iraq and Syria and Iraq and Iran have been
Some highways have been severely deteriorated due to increased use by heavy military
and commercial vehicles.
Iraq has 21,566 total miles of highways, with 10,876 miles of it being paved, and
the other 11,000 miles being improved earth. It has 2,704 miles of crude oil pipelines,
451 miles of petroleum pipelines, and 845 miles of natural gas pipelines. It has 1,527
miles of railroad. Iraq has 42 ships registered to it. Including of 1 passenger, 1
passenger/cargo, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum
trading internationally. Iraq has about 631 miles of inland waterways to trade amongst it
has one currently open port at Khawr az Zubayr. Iraq has 98 usable (but 113 total)
airports, 73 of them with permanent-surface runways.
Iraq’s agricultural products include the following:
Asses: 355,000 headBuffaloes: 130,000 headCamels: 10,000 head
Cattle: 1,400,000 headGoats: 1,500,000 headHorses: 40,000 head
Mules: 2,000 headSheep: 9,000,000 headChickens: 35,000,000 head
Poultry: 65,000 THen Eggs: 45,000 TFish: 14,000 T
Almonds: 700 TDates: 580,000 TFruits: 1,169,000 T
Lemons: 13,000 TOranges: 185,000 TSugar Beets: 5,000 T
Barley: 100,000 TCorn: 100,000 TDry Beans: 8,000 T
Oats: 1,000 TOlives: 3,000 TPotatoes: 195,000 T
Rice: 150,000 TSoybeans: 2,000 TSunflower Seeds: 25,000 T
Vegetables: 2,306,000 TWalnuts: 2,400 TWheat: 260,000 T
Beef and Veal: 38,000 TSugar Cane: 13,000 TButter and Cheese: 7,393 T
Cotton: 5,000 THoney: 2,200 TTobacco: 3,000 T
about 2,300 threshers in use.
In Iraq, the Ba’thist regime is in charge of the extensive central planning and
management of industrial production and foreign trade, while leaving some small-scale
dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign
exchange earnings. In the 1980s, financial problems caused by massive expenditures in
the eight-year war with Iran, with the damage to oil export facilities caused by Iran, led
the government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavier and reschedule
foreign debt payments. After 1988, oil exports gradually increased and many new
pipelines were made. But Agricultural development remained hampered by labor
shortages, the salinization of the land, and dislocations caused by previous land reform
programs. Also, the industrial part of the economy was also under financial constraints.
But after Iraq’s seizure of Kuwait in August 1990, with it’s subsequent international
transportation facilities suffered severe damage, Oil exports remain at less than 10% of
it’s previous level. Living standards deteriorated even further in 1992, and 1993.
Consumer prices tripled in 1992. The UN-sponsored economic embargo reduced exports
internal security force have drained the country’s treasury.
Iraq’s GDP (gross domestic product) is about $35 billion dollars, with the average
person making $1,940 a year. It’s labor force is 4,400,000, causing a severe labor
shortage. Iraq’s industrial production accounts for about 10% of its GDP. Iraq spends
about $6.6 billion a year importing commodities such as manufactures and food. They
billion a year exporting such commodities such as crude oil and other refined products,
Spain. Iraq’s unemployment rate is about 5%.
Iraq’s nation debt is $45 billion (excluding a debt of about $35 owed to Arab Gulf
states). Iraq invests %8.1 of it’s GDP. Iraq produces 3,800,000 kW of electricity a year.
Iraq has received about $650 million in economic aid, most of coming from Western,
non-US countries, from 1970-1989. But after the Gulf War, they have received none.
Iraq’s official currency is Iraqi dinars (ID). It is 3.1 dinars to the dollar, but the black
market rate is 12 to the dollar.
Iraq’s government is technically considered a republic, with it’s capital located in
Baghdad. Iraq’s formal name is the Republic of Iraq. Iraq received it’s independence
from the League of Nations (under British administration) on October 3, 1932. Iraq
contains of 18 provinces or muhafazah: Al Anabar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al
Quadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At Ta’im, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi
Quar, Diyala, Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad din, Wasist. Iraq’s constitution was
constitution was drafted in 1990, but was not adopted). Iraq’s government is very similar
to the US’, consisting of a executive, legislative, and judicial branch, with universal
suffrage at the adult age of 18. It’s leaders include the Chief of State, Saddam Husayn,
Vice Presidents Taha Muhyi al-Din Ma’ruf, and then Taha Yasin. The Head of
Government is Ahmad Husayn Khudayir al-Sammarrai. Iraq has five branches of
Health conditions in Iraq are very poor. There are only 9,442 (about 6 per every
68,121 per year. 83% of the country is immunized for measles and DPT.
museums in Iraq.
The population in Iraq in 1993 was 19,162,000 people. It is estimated that in
2025, there will be 52,615,000 people living there. The population density is about 110
people per square mile. Only 70% of the total population of Iraq live in urban areas. The
population of Iraq is growing 3.7% per year, with the population doubling every 18.94
for females, and 63.2 years for Males. 145,855 people were married last year (about 8.5
people per thousand). 97% of Iraq is Muslim, the other 3% being other various religions.
Iraq’s official language is Arabic, but Kurdish, Assyrian, and Armenian are also spoke
Department of State warns all US citizens against traveling to Iraq. Conditions within
the country remain unsettled and dangerous. The US does not maintain diplomatic
relations with Iraq, and cannot provide normal consular protective services to US
are planning to stay longer than 5 days). Since 1991, US passports are not valid for travel
in, to, or through Iraq without authorization from the Department of state. An adapter is
necessary to use Iraqi electrical outlets. Although Iraq does not have an embassy in the
nation holidays are the following: New Years Day-Jan. 1, Iraqi Army Day-Jan. 6, Id al-
Fitr-Apr. 16, Id al-Adha-Jun. 21, 1958 Revolution-Jul. 14, 1968 Revolution-Jul. 17,
Although Iraq may have it’s problems now, it is a country on the rise. It’s
economy is stabilizing. and it’s government is in the process of working it bugs out.
Some day, Iraq may be one of the world’s superpowers, just like the US.