Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice is a member of the executive branch of the U.S.Government. Founded by Congress in 1870 to take the place Office of the Attorney General, theDepartment is headed by the attorney general, who is appointed by the president with theapproval of the Senate. Divided into management offices, litigation offices, and law enforcementoffices, The Department of Justice (DoJ) is the nations largest law firm and helps to enforceimmigration, drug and naturalization laws. It also acts as legal council to the President and hiscabinet members when requested or necessary and as a representative for the United States inSupreme Court cases. The DoJ’s management offices are broken into the Office of the Attorney General, Officeof the Deputy Attorney General, Office of the Associate Attorney General, Office of the SolicitorGeneral, Office of Legislative Affairs, Justice Management Division, Office of ProfessionalResponsibility, and Office of Inspector General. Collectively, their jobs serve to organize andgive leadership to the rest of the Department. At the management office’s head is the AttorneyGeneral, who acts as the primary law enforcement officer of the Federal government. Thecurrent U.S. Attorney General, Janet Reno was formerly a Florida State Attorney and wasappointed to office by President Clinton on March 12, 1993. Under the Attorney General is the Deputy Attorney General. Currently the position of Eric H. Holder, Jr., the Deputy General acts as a “vice president”, assisting the General increating Departmental policies and acting as a supervisor to the organizational portions of thedepartment. The D.G. also is allowed to use most of the powers that the Attorney General has,except those that cannot be delegated by law. The third position in the hierarchy is the AssociateAttorney General. This office is held by Raymond C. Fisher. The A.A.G. assists both of theoffices above it and serves as the implementator of the Department’s civil and immigrationfunctions. The remaining offices are not directly under each other, but they all handle differentaspects of law. For example, run by Seth P. Waxman, the Office of the Solicitor General is theone responsible for representing the U.S. in the Supreme Court and preparing legal documentsfor the Court. As the Associate General in the Office of Legislative Affairs, Andrew Fois acts asa liaison between the DoJ and Congress. The Justice Management Division, under Stephen P. Colgate handles the Department’s financialissues such as payroll and data processing. The Office of Professional Responsibility, under Richard M. Rogers reports to the Attorney General and is in charge of running investigations onthose members of the DoJ who have been implicated in activities that run against the rules ofconduct of the department. Similarity, the Office of Inspector (under General Michael R.Bromwich) investigates issues of alleged fraud or misappropriation of funds, thereby “promotingeconomy.” The department’s litigation organizations include the antitrust, civil, civil rights, criminal,environment and natural resources, and tax divisions, as well as administrative offices. The
Antitrust Division under Joel I. Klein is charged with the enforcement of the federal antitrustlaws those against industrial and commercial monopolies. The Civil Division run by Frank W.Hunger and its branches supervise all matters relating to civil suits and claims involving the U.S.and its departments, agencies, and officers. The Civil Division handles cases involving patentsand copyrights, fraud, tort claims, customs and immigration, international trade, veterans’ affairs,and consumer affairs. The Civil Rights Division (under Bill Lann Lee) is responsible forenforcing the various Civil Rights Acts and similar legislation. In addition, it is charged witheliminating discrimination in programs that receive federal financial assistance. The CriminalDivision (John C. Keeney) enforces federal criminal statutes relating to such matters as organizedcrime, kidnaping, bank robbery, fraud against the government, racketeering, corruption amongpublic officials, narcotics and dangerous drugs, and some civil matters. The Internal SecuritySection of the division is charged with the investigation and prosecution of all cases affectingnational security (including espionage and sabotage), foreign relations, and the illegal export ofstrategic commodities and technology. The Environment and Natural Resources Division (Lois J.Schiffer) represents the U.S. in litigation involving public lands and natural resources, NativeAmerican lands and claims, wildlife resources, and environmental quality, while the TaxDivision (Loretta C. Argrett) conducts all civil and criminal litigation arising out of the internalrevenue laws, other than proceedings in the U.S. Tax Court. The Office of Policy andCommunications oversees policy development, public affairs, and other administrative areas. Aside from the aforementioned offices, there are also 93 United States Attorneys who are eachassigned a judicial district and act as “little Attorney Generals” (chief federal law enforcementofficers) of his or her particular jurisdiction. The Department of Justice also includes law enforcement agencies, The most famous ofwhich being the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Headed by Louis J. Freeh, the FBI investigatesviolations of federal laws and collects evidence in cases in which the U.S. may be involved. Another well-known agency, the Drug Enforcement Administration (with director Thomas A.Constantine) is responsible for cracking down on the importation and sale of narcotics in theStates. Other Federal law enforcement agencies include: the Bureau of Prisons (headed byKathleen Hawk Sawyer); the U.S. Parole Commission, which has the authority to release federalprisoners before they complete their entire sentences; the Office of Justice Programs, whichprovides financial and technical assistance to state and local law enforcement, supports researchinto justice issues, and accumulates and disseminates criminal justice statistics; the U.S.Marshals Service (directed by Eduardo Gonzalez), which provides protection and other servicesfor the federal courts and responds to emergency situations related to law enforcement; theImmigration and Naturalization Service; the Executive Office for Immigration Review; theOffice of Special Counsel for Immigration-Related Unfair Employment Practices; the U.S.National Central Bureau-International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol); and the ForeignClaims Settlement Commission.