Aurelia, who was part of the Aurelii family, an important Roman family. Julius
gave Julius the desire to follow in his footsteps. Julius was only fifteen years
old when his father died, but he already had a lot of military experience.
In 84 B.C., Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of his father?s friend and
partner, Lucius Cornelius Cinna. Because she was so young, Caesar was
ordered to divorce her, but he refused, and in order to keep him from harm he was
sent to get a fleet of ships from a Roman ally, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia.
When Caesar was about twenty-four years old, he left Rome to study
oratory in Rhodes, Greece. He was captured by pirates when he was on his
way to Rhodes,, but was released after obtaining a ransom. Caesar vowed
revenge, and gathered troops together to go after the pirates. He captured them
in 75 B.C. and had them executed. After returning to Rome from his studies in
In 73 B.C., Caesar was made a pontiff at Rome. He supported those who
were trying to get power from the nobles who dominated the Senate. He also
supported the return of tribunician powers.
His wife Cornelia died in 69 B.C. and he married Pompeia in 68 B.C., a
granddaughter of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, and a relative of Pompey the Great.
suspected she was unfaithful, and in 58 B.C. he married Calpurnia.
A year after becoming the governor of Further Spain, Caesar joined the
First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus to further their political ambitions.
Pompey to obtain land for his veterans and ratify postwar agreements. As a
result, Caesar became governor of Illyricum, Cisalpine Gaul, and Transalpine
Gaul. He was also given a large army which he used to conquer Gaul. These
very powerful because of these wars.
Even though Caesar?s daughter, Julia, married Pompey in 59 B.C., things
began to go wrong with the Triumverate. Then Julia died in 54 B.C. and Crassus
Caesar for Julia?s death, caused the two to become enemies. Pompey joined
the enemies of Caesar and kept him from getting a second consulate. This
lead Caesar to begin a civil war which eventually forced Pompey to withdraw to
defeated Pompey on August 9, 48 B.C. at Pharsalus. Pompey fled to Egypt
where he was murdered.
Caesar followed Pompey to Eaypt where he became involved in a civil
became Caesar?s mistress and followed him to Rome.
After defeating allies of Pompey in Anatolia (47 B.C.), North Africa (47
B.C.), Thapsus (46 B.C.) and Munda, Spain (45 B.C.), Caesar was appointed
dictator of Rome.
As a popular ruler, Caesar was honored by having his face put on coins,
and having a temple erected in his name. He was elected consul, appointed
prefect of morals, awarded tribunician sacrosanctity, and finally appointed
dictator for life in 44 B.C.
Caesar introduced alot of new ideas during his reign, such as, limiting the
dar (which we still use today), and enlarging the Senate. He reduced debts,
revised the tax structure, and extended Roman citizenship to non-Italians.
While meeting the needs of the citizens of Rome, Caesar strenthened his
opponents to fear him. In 44 B.C., Caesar began to plan the conquest of
Parthia, likening himself to Alexander the Great. Many in the Roman Senate
They were led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. On March
15, 44 B.C.,during a meeting of the Senate in Pompey?s theatre, Caesar was
Pompey?s statue, he looked at his friend Brutus and said in Greek: ?Even you, Lad??
Caesar was a very intelligent, popular leader, who caused much loyalty
among the citizens of Rome and many of those in the government, but because
drove them to desperate measures against him. Caesar?s adopted son, Octa-
vian later became the first emperor of Rome, Augustus.
Julius Caesar, one of history?s most remarkable men, in a little less than
fifteen years, had set Rome on the path to become an empire, had shaped the
future of western Europe, had triumphed on battlefields from the Atlantic to
god by the Roman Senate. ? Caesar— the man and the legend—has fascinated
?Caesar, Gaius Julius?, p.470-471. The Collegiate Encyclopedia Vol. 3. New York:Grolier,
?Caesar, Gaius Julius?. Grolier Electronic Publishing, Inc. 1993
Grimal, Pierre. ?In The Footsteps of Caesar: Conquerer?s Path to Mighty Empire?, 373-434
Story of Man: Greece and Rome. National GeographicSociety, 1977
Random House, 1961