Italy Essay, Research Paper


The country I picked to do my report on was Italy. Italy, officially the

Italian Republic, is an independent nation in southern Europe. The word

“Italy” comes from the ancient Oscan language and means “Calf”. Italy is a

fairly small, important mediteranean country of about 116,328 square miles.

Its capital city “Rome” is both the industrial center as well as the cultural

center of Italy. Romes current population is about 2,786,307 people. With

the countries over all population estimated at 57,904,628 people, at a density

of 498 people per square mile. 72% of these people living in urban areas,

while 28% of the population resides in rural areas. Some of Italy’s major

imports include industrial raw materials, petroleum, meat, and cereal grains.

The principal exports are manufactured goods and craft items, along with

fruits and vegetables. Italy usually suffers a trade deficit, but the difference

is partly offset by its large and profitable tourist industry and by money sent

by Italian citizens working abroad. Italy is a country far from being land-

locked, with 9 major ports including Genoa, Trieste, Taranto, Venice,

Savona, and Naples. Italy has been historically important since Roman times,

and millions of tourists are attracted each year to its ancient cities and art

treasures. Modern Italy is an important industrial nation and a leading

member of the european community, also known as the “EC”. Italy’s

principal trading partners are other members of the EC, especially Germany

and France.

Italy’s government was originally a republic, then was a monarchy,

then a republic, then a monarchy. It was reverted back to a republic for a

final time in 1946. According to the constitution, executive power lies with

the cabinet, and legislative powers are vested in a parliament consisting of a

630-member chamber of deputies and a 315-member senate. Except for a

few life members of the senate (including former presidents and some

prominent citizens nominated by the president), both houses are elected

directly by universal adult suffrage for 5-year terms unless dismissed earlier.

The president of the republic is head of state and is elected to a renewable 7-

year term by a joint session of Parliament and three delegates from each of

the regional legislatures. Executive power rests with the council of ministers

headed by the prime minister appointed by the president. The principal

political party is the Christian Democratic party, which has led or

participated in every government since 1945. Other major parties are the

Democratic Party of the Left (the former Communist party) and the Socialist

party. Smaller political groups include the Social Democrats, the

Republicans, the Greens, the Liberals, and the neo-Fascist Italian Social

Movement.THE END

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