HEALTH Its Dimensions Models And Theories


HEALTH; It?s Dimensions, Models And Theories. Essay, Research Paper

The World Health Organisation defines ?health?

as: -??. A complete states of physical, mental and social well

being?not merely the absence of disease.? ????????? WHO (1946) Constitution, Geneva. If we were all to be in compliance with this

definition, there would be very few people who would be classed as being with

their ?health?. This definition has been described by some social scientists as

?utopian? how health would be in an ideal world. With understanding I am going to explain what I

believe to be my view of health from a laypersons? perspective, and then, using

recently used knowledge explain what my concept of? ?health? is from theoretical perspectives. I will then look at

the two contrasting models of health and discuss how these fulfil the WHO

definition.There are many different perspectives in the way which we

view the term ?health?. Everyone is unique so health is something that varies from

person to person; we all have our own views on what is meant by being in good

health, a lot of people take their health for granted, and health is often

something that can be neglected without thought. Many look upon health as being

the absence of disease, illness, aches and pains. ?Your all right as long as

you have got your health?, this is something we often here, but does it refer

to being entirely without illness, no worse than can be expected or appropriate

with one?s circumstances. To describe my own view of? ?what? health is from a laypersons? perspective, I would have to

say that it would be to be without pain and disease, to have mental and

physical stability and to have the freedom and independence to make my own life

choices. I feel that someone?s health can often be affected by his or her

quality of life, to feel good about one?s self you also need to feel dignified. Everyone?s health is unique to them, we are all unique in

our bodies and mind?s, and people react in different ways to different

situations. To show this I am using an example of a woman, whom I know, who

describes herself as being in good health. I am also going to give a brief

description of another friend who suffers with the same condition. Yet the

opinion of a medic or idealist, regarding the first example, would be that she

was without her health, this would be the view from the biomedical approach to

health. The social scientist would query whether or not she had the ability to

function in a normal social role. Where as the humanist would see that she has

adapted positively to the problems that she faces in life, this would be seen

as the holistic model of health.Karen is a 36-year-old

female who studies full time at college; she is a diabetic. Karen is insulin

dependent, on various medications; she has also gone blind and suffers with

peripheral neuropathy. Yet this woman still classes herself as being healthy.

She has learnt to understand and manage her condition, to minimise its effects

on her life. She is training to be a counsellor so that she can help other

people who find themselves in her situation. Karen is grateful for the health

that she has, although she suffers many illnesses she sees these as new

challenges not as ill health. Karen was first diagnosed 12 years ago.Bob is a 44-year-old ?male,

he does not work and is a diabetic. Bob is insulin dependent, receives other

medications and he also suffers with peripheral neuropathy. Bob?s treatment is

overlooked by the district nurses he classes himself as being housebound;

relatives and carers support him in his daily needs. Bob classes him self as

disabled yet he still has his sight, so his physical health is actually better

than Karen?s is. He has been ill for approximately 6 years. Everyone will share different views on the health of these

two people, that is because health means different things to each of usThrough knowledge I have

recently learned I am going to look at what my concept of ?health? is now from

theoretical perspectives. Health is part of a dynamic process; it has various

influences such as age, gender and our social classification. To accurately

diagnose somebody?s health, the body must be viewed as a whole, with all areas

looked at together as one. There are many different

dimensions of health. We can look at how our health affects us in many

different ways. The body reacts as a whole so therefore must be treated as a

whole. It is possible for us to be unhealthy with a psychological ailment that

can lead to social problems, or even be caused by them without showing any

physical trauma. There are also the mental, emotional and spiritual dimensions

to look at when defining health. These are all things that need to be taken

into account when looking for and accurate diagnosis. How is it possible for an

unemployed single mother to feel healthy in a working class society that has

family values, when she is on her own and living in poverty? She may not be

?ill? but her body is not working in harmony and balance. Different professions have

different theories on health. A medic would say it is the absence of disease or

injury that signify health in a person. A social scientist would say that it is

the ability to function in a normal social role. The idealist would support the

WHO definition, where as a humanist would say that it is the ability to adapt

positively to the problems of life, which makes us healthy.? All of these professions have different

opinions, yet they are important in the delivery of our care when we are ill. ? ???????? ?The body is born as one, reacts as one

and dies as one. It is a unity, when affected by sickness, it reacts as a

whole?.? ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Sankaran,

1992.Whichever model of health we

agree with it must be seen to be adequate for the purpose it sets out to

fulfil. Whether this be nursing the sick, the care of the elderly, both

physically and mentally, and the prevention of ill health through the society

in which we live. Holistic is a word derived

from the Greek word ?Holos? meaning whole.?

The holistic model of health is one that fulfils the WHO definition in

the sense that not only on the absence of disease and illness but also on the

absence of physical, psychological and social ailments, will there be harmony

and balance. Both of which are needed to interact to form complete homeostasis.

Holistic models say that to consider the body without taking into account the

social and psychological aspects, would give a misleading diagnosis of the

health of that body. Over the last century the

most influencing model in health has been the traditional biomedical model. It

began in the Renaissance, when the major division between religion and science

occurred. Rene Descartes, a philosopher of the Renaissance, put forward the

concept of dualism, a mind free from external forces and able to think logically

and independently. With this the body and the mind could be viewed separately,

the body was seen as a machine. If there were a problem the body was broken

down into components, the problem would be found and rectified. Biomedical

models of health see the body as a biological machine made up of many parts.

Cells which make tissues, which then make organs and then finally systems.

These systems then interact and communicate to create harmony and balance, a

state called biological homeostasis. This is seen as health. This approach is

known as the reductionist approach, when only a small part and not the

whole person is taken into account. It has been invaluable in gaining

scientific knowledge about the body but ruled out the mind. This approach did

not take into account what affects could be had upon the body by psychological,

social and physical dimensions. Although it is seen to be of great importance

that we are physically well, there is now more acceptance that these other

dimensions influence our health, so when this is taken into account the

biomedical model of health somewhat fulfils the WHO definition. Both of the models of health

that we have looked at view the body as being entire and understand that one

part will not function correctly without the other. Yet the biomedical model,

which is the orthodox, traditional model treats the parts that cause the

problem, without further analysing psychological or social disorders which may

also be present. To achieve complete harmony and balance, we need to firstly

achieve a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, this can

only be done by viewing the body as a whole in its entirety.

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