Stuart Family Album


Stuart Family Album Essay, Research Paper


James I ruled from 1603-1625.

He was a believer of Absolute Power, as he himself believed he had power bestowed upon

him by God ( known as the Divine Right of Kings ).

While he occasionally passed statements in favor of the Puritans/Anglicans, he was

believed to be ( as most Stuarts ) secretly Catholic.

He was not exceedingly fond of Parliament, but had few skirmishes with them, he favored

instead, the Lords.

He was believed to be a homosexual, and married only out of responsibility to the throne.

He was succeeded by Charles I.

Charles I

Charles I ruled from 1625-1649.

He believed in absolute power, and so decided not to call Parliament, as it was his decision

whether or not they met; they couldn?t do anything without his permission to meet. Due to

a Scottish uprising, he found himself in need of money to create an army. Parliament met

once upon his request in 1640, refusing his money, and dissolved. After he called them

back, they decided to stay together for 20 years ( called the ?long Parliament? )…during

which they passed the Triennial Act, Impeached archbishop Laud, and got rid of the High

Commission and Star Chamber ( royal courts ). A civil war broke out between the King

and Parliament from 1642-1649. Eventually Charles I had the Model Army on his hands,

led by Oliver Cromwell and the other Roundheads ( Parliamentarians ). His own Army, the

Royalists/Cavaliers, fell to them. In 1649 he was beheaded.

He believed in the Divine Right of Kings and attempted to achieve Absolute Power.

Married to a Catholic Princess, who strongly influenced him.

While in power he worked towards making the Anglicans more Catholic, and persecuted

the Puritans.

His successor was his Archnemises, the Roundhead leader of the Model Army, Sir Oliver


Oliver Cromwell ( non-Stuart )

He ruled from 1653-1658, after 11 years of Interregnum.

He believed also in Absolute Power ( though not the Divine Right of Kings ); though it?s

what he initially worked to overthrow. He was deemed ?Lord Protector?.

He WAS Parliament originally, and thus had few problems with it until he dissolved it in


He created the idea of Common Wealth, a new Constitution, and placed the land under

Martial Law.

He was Puritan and Anti-Catholic. He also censored the press, forbade sports and sporting

events ( deeming them ?unproductive, and a waste of time? ), and banned theatres.

He was forced out by his people and the French, his successor was Charles II.

Charles II

He ruled from 1660-1685.

He lived under protection of the French during the revolution and his father?s death. He

has one sibling, his brother, James the Duke of York.

He was a monarch, though did not believe in Absolute Power. He ruled in conjunction

with the Lords, though severely limited their power.

He was a member of the Church of England, though the first of the restoration to be a

Catholic sympathizer ( at least for the first portion of his rule ). He also spurred the

creation of the first political parties. The Whigs ( upper class aristocrats who were Anti-

Catholic ), and the Tories ( the lesser Nobles and country gentry who supported the

Monarch ). During the end of his reign he was pressured to sympathize less with the

Catholics. He helped to pass the Test Act of 1673, which stated that Catholics couldn?t

vote, or hold public office, couldn?t preach or teach, or go to university. In addition the

Tories pass the Habeas Corpus, which state reasons for arrest, right to a speedy trial,

double jeopardy, etc.

He kept the Parliament but had little or no trouble with it.

His successor was James II.

James II

James II ruled from 1685 to 1689.

He believed fully in Absolute Power and the Divine Right of Kings.

He had two wives during his rule, the first of which was Protestant, the second was

Catholic ( the one which birthed his children ).

He was Pro-Catholic and tried to reinstate the Catholic church.

During his reign he angered Parliament who aided in the Glorious Revolution in 1688-

1689. It was bloodless, as James refused to fight. This was the destruction of the Divine

Right of Kings.

His successors were his daughter, Mary, and William III of Orange.

William and Mary

They ruled together from 1689 to 1694 when Mary died. William went on to rule alone

until 1702.

Their power was given to them by Parliament, and thus shared. They experienced no

problems/contests/conflicts with Parliament.

During their rule there was the creation of the Bill of Rights and Act of Settlement. This

gave people fundamental rights and decreed how to govern certain aspects of the society.

The two had little concept of Absolute Power, as Parliament had a good deal of control.

The time of the Divine Right of Kings had already passed.

They were married but had no children, thus the state passed the Act of Settlement in

1701; which kept heirs of James ( who were Catholic ) off the throne.

They were supporters ( with little choice ) of the Church of England.

Their successor was Mary?s sister, Anne.

Manwell, Charles. Modern History: Progress in the making. New York: McDougle Little. 1987.

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