1. Thomas Hobbes
- State of Nature- The state of nature is war. There are no morals in the state of nature, justice is non-existent. He claims that the supreme power determines justice, in a state of nature, there is no power.
- Nature of Man- People are created equal, but its just a metaphysical fact, we are all equally in secure. Man is naturally bad, we are out for ourselves at the expense of others in an anti-social way.
2. John Locke
- State of Nature- People get along and are social, it is a type of society in his opinion. There is a sense of justice in the state of nature. People know they ought to obey others rights. People are rational, they would not create a government that makes them worse off than in the TSN.
- Why is a Government Needed- Even though things in the state of nature are great a government is needed because 1. People may disagree over property. 2. There is no written law only natural law 3. Humans may not respect others natural rights though they know they ought to.
- Type of Government believed in- A democratic system must be developed to protect natural rights. People will in turn support it. Leaders are chosen through a majority vote. Every person has moral equity so every person counts as a vote.
3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Natural Rights in Nature- Brotherhood, Liberty and Equality
- In Society- Brotherhood, liberty and equality
- Type of Government Believed in- A direct democracy must be formed
- General Will- A perversion of “majority rules”. What the majority votes is either what you voted for or u realize you were wrong and that you actually wanted what was voted upon. Therefore having everyone vote the same.