AP History Chapter 22 Historian Frederick Turner said, that “frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history.” Continental America had been settled by the turn of the century. Some say it is time for America to have a new frontier and that it might be found overseas. During the turn of the century, the United States become very involved in the affairs of the world. The United States would annex Hawaii and control the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. They would also build a canal in Panama to connect the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. These actions caused many people overseas to call the United States imperialistic and to fear what it might do next? During the 1890’s, Hawaii was in an economic depression that needed help from the United States government. Also, in 1893, wealthy Americans overthrew the queen and immediately sought annexation to the United States. These wealthy Americans who were involved in sugar cane, wanted to be annexed so they could benefit from American tariffs. Though the United States, could not help for Hawaii was not a state in the Union. President Cleveland was opposed to the forced annexation and withdrew a treaty of annexation. Though after the Spanish-American War, Hawaii was able to gain attention as expansionists envisioned ships sailing from the eastern seaboard through a Central American canal to Hawaii and then on to China. It took President McKinley to successfully maneuvered annexation through Congress by means of a majority vote. Cuba was also played a part in American foreign affairs during the turn of the century. After the United States imposed the Wilson-German Tariff, Cuba, depending on imports heavily, fell in to a deep economic crisis. This caused the Cubans to launch a revolution in 1895. Though the Spanish government did provide modified reconcentration and promised some autonomy for Cuba. President McKinley was a known imperialist that wanted independence of Cuba achieved without an U.S. war if possible. Though the revolution seemed to have no end, so the U.S. set the battleship Maine to demonstrate U.S. concern and protection for Americans in Cuba. After its explosion, the U.S. declared war on Spain. The U.S. forces would quickly defeat the Spanish in Cuba and also in the Philippines. The U.S. took the Philippines saying that it was a Spanish colony even though the war was going on in another hemisphere. There were also other incidences in other parts of the world. The U.S. asked China to keep an Open Door policy. This meant that China had to respect the principle of equal trade opportunity for all nations in their spheres of influence. This caused the Boxers to hold hostage foreign legations in Beijing. The United States would then send troops to suppress the revolt and send another letter requesting open door policy. Through this Open Door policy the United States was able to control and dominate trade in China and in other nations. The Open Door was not just a policy. It was also an ideology with several tenets: first, that American’s domestic well being required exports. Second, that foreign trade would suffer interruption unless the U.S. intervened abroad to implant American principles and keep foreign markets open. Third, that the closing of any area to American products, citizens, or ideas threatened the survival of the United States. In conclusion, people overseas had great reason to call the United States imperialistic. The economic benefits sugar cane in Hawaii caused the United States to annex it despite opposition from native Hawaiians and Japan. The capturing of the Philippines in the Pacific Ocean during the Spanish-American War made people to believe that the United States was creating an empire. There idea of Open Door policy lead many to fear the United States because of the tight control that it gave them over other countries. During the turn of the century, the United States were lead by political and the business elite who wanted imperialism.