The phone is easily one of man?s most important,
ridicule with which it first received, now in most places taken for granted,
it is a part of many people?s daily lives. It marvelously extended the
Ever since the ability of language
from 700 BC to 300 AD. In 1791 the Chappe brothers created the Semaphore
of a pole with movable arms, which the positions took the place of letters
of the alphabet. Two years later this idea had caught on and was being
built in the U.S. in Boston and on Martha?s Vineyard; soon Congress was
to New Orleans. Samuel Morse told Congress that not to fund the project
because he was developing the electric telegraph. Soon Samuel Morse developed
his electric telegraph he demonstrated it in 1844 it caught on and by 1851
51 telegraph companies were in operation. And it continued to grow to 2250
telegraph offices nationwide. In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the
March 3, 1847 in Edinburgh. He grew up deeply involved in the study of
musician able to play by ear from a very early age, and, had he not been
more interested in what his father was doing to help people speak, he might
have ended up as a professional musician. He and his two brothers built
human vocal apparatus, which worked with a bellows, so it would be able
to say, “Ma-ma.” Alexander became a Professor and taught visible speech
he was greatly appreciated for this. Soon he went to work for Thomas Sanders
until it became a tad bothersome to Sanders and told him to find a new
shop in Boston and employed Thomas Watson together they worked for weeks
and plucking it caused a distinct sound on both ends. He applied for a
patent on February 14, 1876 3 hours before Elisha Gray filed a patent for
a similar device. March 7, 1876 the patent was issued three days later
Watson come here I want you!? In order to distribute this new technology
The business venture to start this
Sanders, Gardiner G. Hubbard, and Bell dated February 27, 1875. Formed
as a basis for financing Bell’s experiments, the agreement came to be called
the Bell Patent Association. The only tangible assets of this association
were an early Bell patent, “Improvements in Transmitters and Receivers
for Electric Telegraph,” his basic telephone patent, No. 174,465, an “Improvement
in Telegraphy” (March 7, 1876), and two additional patents that followed.
Publicity was needed Hubbard urged Bell to demonstrate his new instrument
as well as the further improvements Thomas Watson had produced at the Philadelphia
Centennial Exposition that summer. It was hot and muggy in Philadelphia
and not many people were attracted the complex scientific experiment setup.
the Emperor of Brazil, whom Bell had met several weeks before at the School
of the Deaf in Boston. The emperor was delighted to see an old friend,
for he stopped the entire judging group and lured them over to Bell’s exhibit
just as the group was disbanding for the day. This was most fortunate event
since Bell planned on leaving to Boston to continue his work at the Deaf
in amazement as Bell recited all of Hamlet’s soliloquy, and Dom Pedro exclaimed
in wonder, “My God! It talks!?
Just before Mr. and Mrs. Bell left
for Europe for their Honeymoon, on August 4, 1877, the three members formed
the Bell Telephone Company to look after the telephone’s interests. Thomas
and, While Bell sailed to Europe to promote his invention and work with
the deaf, Watson stayed at home. He was the first research and development
arm of the Bell System-forerunner of the vaunted Bell Telephone Laboratories.
Bell Telephone Company worked hard leasing phones but hopes dipped and
Hubbard offered to sell all the Bell patents to William Orton, president
of Western Union Company, for just $100,000. This letter was sent to Hubbard
in response to the offer:
In 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and his
financial backer, Gardiner G. Hubbard, offered Bell’s brand new patent
(No. 174,465) to the Telegraph Company – the ancestor of Western Union.
The President of the Telegraph Company, Chauncey M. DePew, appointed a
committee to investigate the offer. The committee report has often been
quoted. It reads in part:
“The Telephone purports to transmit the
speaking voice over telegraph wires. We found that the voice is very weak
and indistinct, and grows even weaker when long wires are used between
the transmitter and receiver. Technically, we do not see that this device
will be ever capable of sending recognizable speech over a distance of
“Messer Hubbard and Bell want to install
one of their “telephone devices” in every city. The idea is idiotic on
the face of it. Furthermore, why would any person want to use this ungainly
and impractical device when he can send a messenger to the telegraph office
and have a clear written message sent to any large city in the United States?
“The electricians of our company have
developed all the significant improvements in the telegraph art to date,
ideas, should be entertained, when they have not the slightest idea of
the true problems involved. Mr. G.G. Hubbard’s fanciful predictions, while
they sound rosy, are based on wild-eyed imagination and lack of understanding
ignoring the obvious limitations of his device, which is hardly more than
“In view of these facts, we feel that Mr.
G.G. Hubbard’s request for $100,000 of the sale of this patent is utterly
unreasonable, since this device is inherently of no use to us. We do not
recommend its purchase.”
Western Union in 1878 created their
own telephone company after finding out the telephone had uses such as
eliminating the ticker tape machine. This company was called American Telephone
and Telegraph they bought Elisha Gray’s patents and commissioned Thomas
invented a telephone transmitter that was far better than anything in use
by the Bell Companies did. It was a very good selling point for the American
Speaking Telephone Company. So Bell Telephone Company needed a man who
by Hubbard to serve as general manager, organizer and promoter. Vail took
Western Union with Patent Infringement suits and Western Union retreated.
They sold all their phones in 55 cities and stayed out of the telephone
business indefinitely. Later American Telephone and Telegraph was created
once again to become a subsidiary that sold long distance service. In 1899
AT&T started to mature and was constantly changing they way Americans
After Jay Gould of Western Union
died the company started to break apart so AT&T bought Western Union.
Ironically they took control of the company that years before refused to
buy their company. So AT&T became larger and larger then in 1912 entered
AT&T had become a monopoly. When WWI came many people cried that the
government should take over the communications and AT&T couldn?t stop
out of this most severe regulation. After the Great Depression AT&T
was able to supply many jobs to people as operators and maintenance workers.
Changes had always affected AT&T some good and bad.
The man responsible for the ?dial telephone
system? had a very good reason for getting rid of all the operators who
controlled what calls went out and in. Amon Strowger, the St. Louis undertaker,
became upset on finding that the wife of a competitor was a telephone operator
who made his line busy and transferred calls meant for him to her husband.
“Necessity is the mother of invention” so Strowger developed the dial telephone
system to get the operator out of the system. Many other inventions were
tied to the telephone like the fax machine, the early computer, calculator,
1960?s Bell Labs technologists had been growing increasingly concerned
about the limitations of the national numbering plan which had been adopted
earlier to make Direct Distance Dialing possible. In brief, the numbering
with a different three-digit number which could be recognized by automatic
switching equipment because the second digit was either a one or a zero.
When the numbering plan was first devised it appeared that telephone numbers
would go on forever, without any possible shortage developing. But the
American and Canadian populations began growing at such a rate that the
have either a one or a zero in the middle, they could not be added to without
great expense in changing the recognizing equipment. It looked as if something
should be done about individual telephone numbers. Further, others at Bell
Labs had found that push-button telephones, when introduced would be much
easier to use if the numbers could appear all alone on the buttons without
being confused by the addition of letters. A group of very vocal people
hated it. They felt, they said, that they and everyone else were being
their heritage was being destroyed and that the Bell System was behind
suit against the Bell System charging monopolization and conspiracy to
monopolize the supply of telecommunications service and equipment in America.
Thus began the divestiture of AT&T?s
benevolent domination in the telecommunications market. In December 1981,
after 2 years of attempts to rid ourselves of the antitrust case and to
Attorney General William F. Baxter about settling the lawsuit. The negotiations
went quickly. Our positions were clear, and we both knew that regardless
of the result, we had to maintain a strong and viable communications industry
for the United States. On January 8, 1982, we jointly announced that the
Justice Department’s lawsuit had been resolved through the Bell System’s
agreement to divest itself of the local exchange portions of its 22 operating
telephone companies. The Justice Department agreed to dissolve the previous
(1956) consent decree and replace it with a new agreement, thereby freeing
I had evaluated the situation in the following way:
A major duty of corporate management is
to make certain the business conforms to public policy. If not, in the
long run, it will not survive. Public policy at that time, however arrived
at, was searching for a change.
The Bell System was perceived by some part
of the public as too big, too powerful, or too pervasive.
The new public policy was intended to make
Time was not in the Bell System’s favor
- opportunities would be missed and it was impossible to plan for the future
until legal, legislative, and regulatory problems were resolved.
To gain access to new markets and retain
access to current markets, the Bell System would have to agree to radical
Acceptance of the Justice Department’s
major demand, the divestiture of local operations via a relatively simple,
broad decree, would leave AT&T free to reorganize on a business basis
as opposed to reorganization detailed by a court or a legislative body.
Of the three options-continuing litigation,
agreeing to crippling legislation or an injunctive decree, or accepting
divestiture of our local telephone companies – the last was the best course
to follow for the public and the stockholders (14,15).
The Justice Department’s goal was to separate
the Bell System’s competitive operations from those that were in the realm
of natural monopoly, that is, the local-exchange businesses. This was a
clean but painful procedure. To retain its vertical structure and gain
freedom to compete and follow its technology into new markets, AT&T
would have to give up its nationwide partnership of companies providing
total, end-to-end communications service. Only then could we lift the cloud
of uncertainty that had hung over the business for most of the past decade.
AT&T thus having agreed to divest three-fourths
of its assets, the Bell System set about the task of restructuring. Seven
regional companies were organized to take over the local exchange operations.
A central services organization, later named Bell Communications Research,
or Bellcore, was created. Owned and operated by the regional companies,
it would provide technical and support services and coordination for national
To the extent humanly possible, our service
to all segments of the public win be provided at the same high levels which
have been the hallmark of the Bell System service.
3,200,000 owners of the business will be preserved.
The reorganization will be carried out
in such a way as to ensure that the people of the Bell System will have
The divested companies will be launched
to make them flourishing enterprises in the regions in which they will
I believe we honored all four principles.
At divestiture, which took place January
1, 1984, the date the Bell System ceased to exist, the seven regional companies
handled all local calling, some intrastate long-distance business, customer
were permitted also to compete in the provision of new customer premise
equipment. The regional Bell companies were restrained from manufacturing
telephone equipment and entering the bulk of the long-distance business
and some “information” services, but they could, with the permission of
the court, enter other businesses. The “new” AT&T’s business consisted
of long-distance services, services for all customer-terminal equipment
company. AT&T was in competition with every company that chose to enter
its markets, and it was free to enter nearly any new markets it desired.
At this writing, each of the new companies,
divested with a common heritage and common culture, is finding its own
way in the new and exciting age of information. Over time they will establish
of communications services for the entire United States. The agreements,
up over a century under the integrated Bell System have been replaced by
new, arms-length business contracts.
Some changes have occurred at both levels
of the telecommunications regulatory scheme: states have deregulated certain
services either partially or wholly; the FCC has eliminated the difficult
business separation requirements placed on AT&T in the early 1980s
and moved to replace the unwieldy rate-of-return constraints with price
caps. However, federal and state regulation is still pervasive and is applied
to the telephone companies’ monopoly local exchange business and to AT&T’s
competitive telecommunications services but not to its long-distance rivals.
Moreover, the federal judge who presided
over the trial and the consent agreement regularly makes major decisions
pertaining to compliance with the decree. These decisions sometimes affect
the structure and performance of the industry and the services the American
In the relatively short period since the
new companies emerged, many changes in company organization, markets, and
products have taken place. New technologies are being employed to provide
new products and still better service. Change and adaptation – long-standing
characteristics of the Bell System – continue to be central aspects of
the telecommunications industry today.
How a Telephone works now is pretty much
the same as I did in the 1920?s. This is how the handset looks like inside.
As you can see, it only contains 3 parts
and they are all simple:
 A switch to connect and disconnect
the phone from the network. This switch is generally called the hook switch.
It connects when you lift the handset.
 A speaker, which is generally
a little 50 cent 8-ohm speaker of some sort
 A microphone. In the past,
telephone microphones have been as simple as carbon granules compressed
between two thin metal plates. Sounds waves from your voice compress and
decompress the granules, changing the resistance of the granules and modulating
the current flowing through the microphone.
That’s it! You can dial this simple phone
“pulse dialing” like this. If you pick the phone up and rapidly tap the
switch hook 4 times, the Phone Company?s switch will understand that you
have dialed a 4, for example.
The only problem with the phone shown
above is that when you talk you will hear your voice through the speaker.
Most people find that annoying, so any real phone contains a device called
a duplex coil or something functionally equivalent to block the sound of
your own voice from reaching your ear. A modern telephone also includes
a bell so it can ring and a touch-tone keypad and frequency generator.
A “real” phone looks like this:
Still, it’s pretty simple! In a modern
phone there is an electronic microphone, amplifier and circuit to replace
the carbon granules and loading coil. A speaker and a circuit to generate
a pleasant ringing tone often replace the mechanical bell. But a normal
$6.95 telephone that you buy at Wal-Mart remains one of the simplest devices
The telephone network starts in your house.
A pair of copper wires runs from a box at the road to a box (often called
an “entrance bridge”) at your house. From there the pair of wires is connected
your house has two phone lines, then two separate pairs of copper wire
run from the road to your house. The second pair is usually colored yellow
and black inside your house.
Along the road runs a thick cable packed
thick cable will run directly to the phone company’s switch in your area,
or it will run to a box about the size of a refrigerator that acts as a
digital concentrator. The concentrator digitizes your voice at a sample
rate of 8,000 samples per second and 8-bit resolution. It then combines
your voice with hundreds of others and sends them all down a single wire
(usually a coax cable or a fiber-optic cable) to the phone company office.
Either way, your line connects into a line card at the switch so you can
hear the dial tone when you pick up your phone. If you are calling someone
connected to the same office, then the switch simply creates a loop between
your phone and the phone of the person you called. If it’s a long-distance
call, then your voice is digitized and combined with millions of other
fiber-optic line to the office of the receiving party, but it may also
be transmitted by satellite or by microwave towers.
Alexander Graham Bell is known as the
inventor of the telephone in Canada, U.S. and Scotland. Yet other countries
that have no ethnic relation to him try to find inventors in their country.
There is an on going dispute on who invented the telephone first and when
it was put into place. Even in our own country many legal battles have
occurred to show whom the real inventor of the telephone was. At both times
Gray and Bell applied for patents neither phone carried voices Gray?s patent
believe that Gray, and not bell, invented the telephone. Gray certainly
thought he had invented it. Other suits were filed for the Reis machine,
which was just a primitive device that made weird sounds and unless beaten
it would never carry a voice. 582 lawsuits were filed against AT&T
and Bell and they never lost a case. There is so much information on AT&T
that I would not be able to quantify it in a mere sentence. I?m awe struck
everyday activities. AT&T will surely be around for a long time.
(1)Bell System History
A Capsule History of the Bell System
Who really invented the telephone?
Bill’s 200-Year Condensed History of Telecommunications