In science, one system of deduction has brought about many significant breakthroughs, more than any other used. This system is called the Scientific Method, and without it, mankind would not be as advanced as it is today.
The first, and probably the most important part in the Scientific Method is observing and stating a problem. For example, one might wonder why the sky is blue during the day, and black during the night. Since our curiosity might get the better of us, we would wonder why the sky changes color, and try to find out.
Next, we would form a hypothesis, or in layman s terms and educated guess, as to why the sky changes color. For example, we might observe that the sky changes color when the earth makes its daily rotation. Then, we could hypothesize that the sky changes color because the earth is constantly rotating on its axis.
After forming a hypothesis, we must test it. Sometimes, simple observation can test a hypothesis. For example, if we were to test our hypothesis from the previous paragraphs, we would observe the sun rise and set for a week in the Western Hemisphere. Then, we would travel to the Eastern Hemisphere and observe the sun rise and set for another week before our observation period would be over. We must do this to have multiple data from different sources. Besides making observations, there are instances where an experiment is necessary to test the validity of a hypothesis. When one experiments, one must test the same thing over and over again, with a control. A control is when one simulates an experiment with normal conditions. Next, one has something called a variable. A variable is when one changes the normal conditions of what ever one is experimenting on. Remember, every experiment must have a control and a variable.
When one is testing the hypothesis, one must make records of their observations and information on what is happening. This is called data. In our experiment, our data might be that the sky changes color based on whether or not the sun is visible. We might put together this information with charts, graphs, or tables, because visual information is easy to interpret and understand.
Finally, one must make a conclusion, or answer to our original problem. The conclusion may confirm our original hypothesis, or it might not. We have to decide this through the experimentation, observations, and data. For example, the conclusion we might draw is: The sky changes color because of the earth s rotation, and the constant changing of the position of the sun due to this. If that were not the case, we would say: The sky does not change because of the earth s rotation, but because of the movement of the sun. If one is not satisfied, one may form another hypothesis, or re-test it. This is the way science advances; through hypotheses being proved or disproved. Remember, a hypothesis can be disproved in the future if more information is found.
In conclusion, the Scientific Method is an easy, five-step program which is part of the essence of science, is indispensable to mankind today. In fact, it is impossible to get through the day without encountering anything that was not made possible by the Scientific Method. So the next time you start your car or turn on the television set, remember the Scientific Method; without it, you wouldn t be able to do anything.