There are globular protein regions, which are hydrophilic. These regions allow water and water soluble substances through, but only if they are small enough, for example starch grains are too big. These substances move through by passive transport or diffusion.
Diffusion is the passive movement of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration ( N.B., you don’t need a membrane present, e.g. diffusion occurs in the air). In CONTRAST, diffusion of water across a semi- permeable membrane is called OSMOSIS.
Active transport requires energy from ATP, and involves carrier molecules studding the membranes. The carrier combines with the molecule on the outside, which requires ATP. It then moves across, (which also requires ATP), and returns. An example is glucose being transported by active transport by insulin.
Why is it called the Fluid Mosaic Model?
Mosaic- it is a mosaic because it is a collection (or mosaic) of structures
Model- because no matter how real the diagram looks, it is not real. Therefore, it is a model.
SO you put all three bits together and you get. FLUID MOSAIC MODEL! YAY!!!!!!