During the enlightenment, Frederick III was the ruler. He was very lenient and allowed for the freedom of reason, which gradually leads to a change in society in the long run. The use of reason could be either public or private. In public, reason is free and should be used in behalf of humanity. In private, the use of reason must conform to the work you are supposed to do. However, the free use of reason might be corruptive and harmful.
The idea of AS is that equilibrium is reached in a market if things are left alone and the government is not interfering in the economy. According to AS, the economic system works as precisely as physics and is directed by an invisible hand toward equilibrium.
Many critics about AS appeared and the most obvious one are communism.