strength of 4th century empire and survival through 5th. ?
Diocletian work on
border ? reorganisation of provinces, rebuilding creation of forts, need for
increased specialisation? – limited
capacity offensive wars beyond border ? cost of maintaining expanded force.
Avoid costs and losses restrict army to defensive duties. ?
showed how unwise large scale aggressive war was, defeat Adrianople reinforced
a determination to avoid risks. ?
of tax payers money. ?
Yes Diocletian sets up
base.? Frequent shortages of pay and
supplies for troops.? Corruption and
difficulties raising money 360 ? Ursulus comessacrarum largitionum ?Look
the depletion of the Empire?s wealth? ?
Views like this extend
sympathy non-military approach to foreign relations ? head on and defeat
tradition.? History fourth and fifth
centuries attempts in tension with this tradition, to develop new approaches to
relation to be modified. ?
Rokman attitudes to
Barbarians still sub-human despite so many in the army and Priscus less so ?The
Barbarian?- Barbarians ability to coordinate actions, form confederacies,
appreciation and utilisation of skills ? or Attila?s diplomacy etc, or entry
Stilicho is a Vandal ? Syneius of Cyrene 399 ? only place for Barbarian in
Nbarbarians settle in
west and despite Ostrogoths leaving for Italy under Theoderic ? despite purge
399 ? continued demand for Barbarians in army. ?
Persia under Ardashir
and booty.? War like impulses driven
and its resources, heroic descent + wars.?
geographical whole. ?
Persian Kingdom – Eran
extrinsic.? Armenia may have fluctuated
between status and most regions tend to resist attempts to bind them further
into centralised state ? Kawad and Khosro I ?
7 major offices in SE
elite of service military and civil.?
Persian rulers ? no imperial aggrandisement Shapur I when captured cities did
not attempt to hold on to what he had taken ? marched inhabitants off to Persian
war maintain position with Persia.?
from Emperor, or they saw it tribute, which can be seen as political
Sasanian age of heroic
that distract them from war ? dissentions amongst nobility, opposition with
great control of law etc.? Secular
counter balance of RE lacking in SE.?
evangelisation beyond border. ?
Death of Shapur I to
grand invasion Kawad 502 ? very constraint in their dealings.? Significant military penetrations shows
restraint:? invasions of south
Mesopotamia Armenia by Nersh in 296 and Galerius reposted 298,invasions of
northern Mesopotamia, invasions north M by Shapur II in 359 and 360,
them 337 ? 350 ? large-scale efforts were comparatively rare balance of large scale
Despite Dio Cassius
and Herodian Persian harboured no desire Achaemenid holdings up to Thrace ? not
solely imperialist mindset, but no indication of a Persian will to world
dominion such as wars fostered by a Roman and Christian universalism. Shapur II
real aim overturning settlement of 299 ? no evidence harboured broader
territorial ambitions ? desire at most for hegemony taking the form of Cesar
tributary boasts. ?
Ate 3rd and
4th centuries internal and external distractions for Persians ?
improved defensive capacity of Romans developed under Diocletian and
Constantine from 350 raiding of Kidarites in NE – paralleled, not equalled,
pressures Roman suffer on Northern border ? drew off attention and resources ?
Internally ? King
could be distracted by attempts from priesthood and nobility to limit power and
control use ? polygamy and no primogeniture encouraged and obscured succession
problems. Distracted Western frontier as it seems initiative from King
necessary for anything other than minor undertakings. ?
King faces difficulty
in marshalling resources for full-scale campaign against Romans ? or even
enough to maintain a strong defensive position ? King only small standing army
needed nobility support and release, makes it a slow process to raise an army ?
inhibited development of Romanesque infrastructure for supply and maintenance ?
King effort to have
agreement had aim of raising money so King could have direct control..? If Romans refused go on booty and loot raids
which would get the required funds, stability and honour and glory for the
King.? When defences weakened in 502 ?
penetrations increased King?s position; direct control, finance and power with
Factors positively add
for search for military compromise, lessen need for military action.? Southern Mesopotamia with Jewish influence
and Babylonia ? cultivated and sued in administration.? Admin and legalistic tradition counter
balance heroic Iranian tradition, alternatives to the glory of war. History
Babylonia ? respectfully incorporated into Graeco-Roman historical tradition. ?
gave Persia face of stable, enduring, civilised polity with which to deal on
more than military basis.