to the development and actualization of Tayo?s character. These four women are
he has a ?natural? cultural flaw imposed upon him at birth, which would
linger and expand into adulthood. At four years old, Tayo?s birth mother left
only that she (mother) had come after dark and wrapped him in a man?s coat ?
clung to her because when she left him, he knew she would be gone for a long
65-66).? Nonetheless, Tayo?s sense of emptiness and abandonment began.
Auntie raised Tayo and was the mother figure he lacked. However, Auntie
hand, Auntie willingly accepted Tayo to ?conceal the shame of her younger
sister (Ibid 29).? This contradiction, made Auntie hesitant toward Tayo as he
was not her real son and was also a ?half-breed.? For Tayo, this only added
14).? Auntie would give her affection and attention to her natural son Rocky,
and would intentionally make Tayo feel excluded. ?It was a private
understanding between the two of them. When Josiah or old Grandma or Robert was
she treated Rocky, but they both knew it was only temporary (Ibid 66-67).?
Moreover, this treatment towards Tayo had only added ?salt in the wound.?
After the war, Auntie nursed Tayo because ?he was all she had left (Ibid
29)? after Rocky was killed in action and Josiah had passed. Tayo would wake
him when he was a child (Ibid 32). Now he realized that there wasn?t a place
left for him and he would never find peace (Ibid 32). Auntie may have felt she
mothered him (out of duty), yet to Tayo she was just someone who looked after
only the best for him. For instance, when Grandma suggested, ?that boy needs a
medicine man. Otherwise, he will have to go away,? Auntie retaliated with
They?ll say, ?Don?t do it. He?s not full blood anyway (Ibid 33).??
However, Grandma stated ?he?s my grandson. If I send for old Ku?oosh,
he?ll come. Let them talk if they want to (Ibid 33).? In other words,
old Grandma allowed Tayo to experience some feeling of belongingness, however
not enough to make Tayo feel whole. It is when Tayo meets and falls in love with
Ceremony is very powerful and vital to the recovery of Tayo. She lives up in the
upbringing, leaves Tayo feeling invisible and hollow inside. Ts?eh helps him
to become in touch with his Indian side and to feel strength and power from the