Sex Hereditary Determination


Sex Hereditary Determination Essay, Research Paper

Concerns the determination of the gonads. In mammals, determination strictly

chromosomal; not influenced by the environment. Most cases- female = XX; male=

XY Every individual organism has atleast one X Chromosome. Since the female has

2 X chromosomes, each of her eggs posses one X chromosome. The male posses an X

and a Y, so therefore the male can produce 2 kinds of sperm, one with an X

chromosome and one with a Y chromosome. If an offspring receives an X and a Y,

then it will be a male. TheY chromosome carries a gene that encodes a testis

determining factor. If a person had an innumerable number of x chromosomes and

one y chromosome, they would be male. If a person is born with only a single x

chromosome and no second x or y, then they develop as a female, but are

infertile.(not able to maintain ovarian follicles) More Primary Sex

Determination- In the is absence of the Y chromosome , the primordial gonad body

develops into ovaries. the ovary then produces the estrogenic hormones, which

contains estrogen and other such hormones, enabling the development of the

Mullerian duct into the uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper end of the vagina. In

the presence of Y chromosome, the testes form. The testes secrete two major

enzymes. The first hormone, AMH(anti-Mulllerian duct hormone), destroys to

Mullerian duct. The second, testosterone, stimulates the masculinization of the

fetus. During this process the penis, scrotum, and other male anatomical

structures form. The development of the primordial breast is inhibited. The

body, therefore, has the female phenotype unless it is altered by two hormones

created in the fetal testes. The development of gonads is the only fetal organ

development process that has the chance of developing into more than one organ

(under normal circumstances and barring mutations). The primordial gonad can

develop into either an ovary or a testis. Before the gonad develops into the

testes or ovary, it first goes through an indifferent stage, also known as a

bipotential stage, during which time it has neither male or female

characteristics. In humans, the primordial gonad first develops in the 4th week

and remains indifferent until the 7th week. Sex Determinant genes- In humans,

the major genes for the testis determining factor reside on the short arm of the

Y chromosome. Individuals born with the short arm of the Y chromosome, but not

the long are males. Those born with the long end but not the short are actually

female. Through scientific research on XX males and XY females, the position of

the testis-determining gene has been narrowed down to a small region. On the

short arm of the Y chromosome there is believed to be an area called the HMG

box, which stands for high-mobility group box. This HMG box is believed to

contain the genetic information to establish masculinity. There are two known

major genes in this HMG box that are believed to have an effect on the

determining of sex, SRY and SOX9. SRY (sex-determining region of the Y) is found

in XY males, is absent from XX females, is found in the rare XX males, and is

absent in the XY females. Many XY women were found to have a point mutation in

the SRY gene, which would prevent the SRY protein from binding to the DNA. Since

humans are difficult to study, Scientists found a different way to study this

gene. In mice, there is a gene homologous to SRY, which is named Sry. the mouse

gene also correlates with the presence of testes; it is present in XX males and

absent in XY females. To further test this theory of Sry being the testes

determining gene, scientists injected the Sry sequence into XX fertilized mice

zygotes. In most instances the mice developed testes and the rest of the male

accessory organs, but weren?t fertile(the presence of two X chromosomes

prevents sperm formation in both mice and men). This is the majority of the

evidence supporting this gene as the one that determines whether you are male or

female. The function of SOX9 is unclear. If a male is born without a functional

copy of SOX9, then a syndrome called campomelic dysplasia develops. It involves

numerous skeletal and organ systems. If born without SOX9, the male child dies

soon there after from distress arising from defective bronchia and tracheas.

However, 3/4 of those males born without SOX9 phenotypicaly appear to be females

or hermaphrodites. Since SOX9 is on the Y Chromosome, almost all women are born

without it. Secondary sex determination- concerns the bodily phenotype outside

the gonads. Secondary sex determination concerns the development of the female

and male phenotypes form the hormones secreted by the ovaries and testes. In the

absence of gonads, the female phenotype is generated. A male mammal has a penis,

seminal vesicles, a prostate gland, and often sex specific size, vocal

cartilage, and musculature. A female mammal has a vagina, uterus, oviducts,

mammary glands, and often sex specific size, vocal cartilage, and musculature.

(1953- scientist named Jost removed fetal rabbit gonads before they had

differentiated. The rabbits that resulted were all female, regardless if they

had a pair of XX chromosomes, or a pair of XY chromosomes. They were all

infertile, but developed a uterus, a vagina, and fallopian tubes.)

Hermaphrodites are named after the son of Hermes and Aphrodite. Having inherited

the beauty of both parents, he excited the love of the nymph of the Salmacis

fountain. As he bathed in this fountain, she embraced him and prayed to the gods

that they might forever be united. She got her wish. Hermaphroditism in Fishes-

The most common vertebrate hermaphrodite. There are 3 kinds of hermaphrodites in

fish. The first are synchronous hermaphrodites. These have ovaries and testes at

the same time. Fish in this group form spawning pairs. Each fish takes turns

spawning the other fish from the pair?s eggs. The second are protogynous

hermaphrodites. These fish are females at the start of their lives but later

become males. The third group is protandrous hermaphrodites. These fish are

males first, and then become females at the end of their lives.

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