misunderstanding of roman aims ? doubtful late antiquity wanted to extend
control far beyond Tigris as would have doe in 298/99? 0 Julian?s expedition should not be seen as an attempt to conquer
Persia ? chance remark Ammianus implies limited aim of returning in 363 ? aim:
regaining initiative in East after Shapur?s recent successes by forcing him
onto defensive ?
Can see why Khurso
advances on Ctesiphon by Cassius, Severus, Carus, Galerius and Julian must have
Older Emperors not
believing Romano-Turk alliance beat Persia ?
relations ? pervaded by mutual suspicion and fear of intention, major invasions
should be seen as pre-emptive in aim, attempts to keep one another off balance
diplomatic protocol reinforce recognition of potential threat ? neither has
ambition to acquire territory beyond strategically crucial north Mesopotamian