Audience Analysis – Chapter 5
I) Postmodern Paradoxes
b. Dilemmas of Diversity
i. Dilemmas include:
1. difference versus similarity
2. hope vs. despair
3. opportunity vs. oppression.
ii. Difference vs. Similarity
2. 90% of today’s married couples met in a relatively homogeneous social settings.
iii. Hope vs. Despair
2. Public speakers in the 1990’s will want to take note of the alternating mood of the public.
iv. Opportunity vs. Oppression
c. Public Talk: Merging personal and social responsibility
3. Audience analysis is a key to making sure that public talk is worthwhile for speakers and helpful for listeners.
II) The Active Audience
1. People interpret what is going on around the, and then they work out a line of action appropriate to what they think.
2. Given an active audience, all we an realistically expect is that listeners will weigh our words, compare what we say against their existing views, and then think or act in ways appropriate for them.
1. Two types of beliefs: verifiable beliefs-amount to factual knowledge of the world, and Primitive beliefs-do not provide specific factual information as much as they give us a view of how the world works.
2. You should be concerned with the audience’s store of verifiable and primitive beliefs that pertain to your speech topic.
1. An attitude is a tendency to approve or disapprove of an object, event, or condition.
2. Rokeach-attitudes are overall judgments of people’s beliefs.
1. People hold two types of values:
a. Terminal- Deals with conditions in which people live, such as freedom and world peace.
2. Members of your audience hold values that pertain to your speech content-serve as sources of motivation for listeners.
3. Tendencies of people to share images make successful audience analysis possible for speakers.
a. Demographic generalizations
1. Age is related to values and lifestyles.
2. Generalizations about the age of you listeners can help you prepare a speech.
1. We live in an era in changing sex rules – gender based generalizations are difficult and controversial.
1. Level of education can serve as a basis of some for predictions of some on how they will respond to speeches.
2. Use generalizations about educational attainment as basis of speech preparation.
2. Dividing country into geographic regions also supplies useful information about audiences.
vi. Occupation and Income
1. Knowing the occupational status of listeners gives clues about their views on life.
2. Higher birthrate for minorities.
4. Can be useful for audience analysis.
2. Religious demography allows only very general and very tentative insights into your audience.
b. The speech situation
1. Time can influence reception of your speech
2. Time of day can influence you listening comprehension.
3. Time on calendar can have special importance on readers.
4. Schedule can have special importance
2. Pay attention to every detail that might give you an advantage or put you in an uncomfortable position.
ii. Needs of most public speakers will be met by a questionnaire containing three elements:
1. Demographic questions
2. Awareness-oriented questions
iv. Alternatives for writing attitude questions include:
1. Open-ended questions
2. List of response choices
3. List of open-ended responses
v. Learning about your audience is crucial if you are to win interest, attention, and support.
IV) Credibility considerations
a. Universal factors of credibility
i. Aristotle identified three components of believability
2. Showed good sense in discussing the subject
3. Exhibited trust worthy methods.
ii. Situational factors of creditability for conditions of a speaking situation can influence how the audience weights the believability of the speaker.
1. Sex of the speaker and listener
2. Attitude of listeners
3. Similarity of speaker and listener can influence whether a speaker comes across creditable.