Protein Synthesis


Protein Synthesis Essay, Research Paper

Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis is the process by which genetic information from the

DNA stored in the nucleus is transferred to the ribosomes where it is used to

arrange amino acids into proteins.

The DNA molecule in the nucleus is unzipped by an enzyme called

polymerase. From one of these single strands of a DNA molecule, a mRNA molecule

is built. This is accomplished by an enzyme which travels along a portion of DNA

between two exons and attaches the opposing base pairs to the backbone of the

mRNA (a structure composed of phosphates and ribose). The nitrogen bases of this

new molecule are identical to that of the opposite side of the original DNA

molecule except that the thymine has been replaced with uracil. The formation of

this molecule allows for the construction of proteins in the ribosome without

risking the DNA in the cytoplasm.

The mRNA travels through the cell to a ribosome. Here tRNA which contain

the appropriate anti-codon collect the amino acids coded for in the mRNA. Each

amino acid is connected to the next amino acid. The mRNA thus transverses the

ribosome with each three nitrogen base condon selecting an amino acid. This

continues until the ribosome encounters a stop condon. When this happens the

amino acid chain is released from the tRNA and is a protein.

This process allows for the genetic information stored in the DNA to be

expressed in the physical and functional makeup of the cell.

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