Organic And Biological Compounds


Organic And Biological Compounds Essay, Research Paper

Chapter 13 Organic and Biological Compounds

I.Simple Organic Compounds

A. Organic Compounds

1.Most compounds that contain the element carbon are organic


Ie: More than 90% of all compounds are organic compounds.

2.The word organic comes from the word organism.

Ie: At one time, scientists assumed that only living organisms could produce organic compounds.

B. Hydrocarbons

1.The chemical formula to methane is CH4.

Ie: Found in natural gas used by most people.

2.Hydrocarbons containing only single-bounded carbon atoms are called saturated hydrocarbons.

Ie: Is joined by single covalent bonds.

3.Hydrocarbons, such as ethane and ethyne, that contain at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Ie: Fats and oils are classified as unsaturated hydrocarbons.

C. Isomers

1.Another hydrocarbon also has the same chemical formula as butane.

Ie: The chemical formula for butane is C4H10.

2.Isomers are compounds that have identical formulas but different molecular structures and shapes.

Ie: There are thousands of isomers in hydrocarbons.

II.Other Organic Compounds

A. Aromatic Compounds

1.An aromatic compound is a compound that contains the benzene ring structure.

Ie: The chemical formula for benzene is C6H6.

2.Knowing the structure of benzene can help you picture hundreds of different aromatic organic compounds.

Ie: One example is naphthalene.

B. Substituted Hydrocarbons

1.A substituted hydrocarbon has one or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms of other elements.

Ie: A compound used in dry cleaning, tetrachloroethene, is a substituted hydrocarbon.

2.The prefix tetra means “four,” and chloro- refers to chlorine.

Ie: Tetrachloroethene

3.An alcohol is formed when -OH groups replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon.

Ie: Alcohol

III.Alternative Sources of Energy

A. Why Not New Fuels?

1.Biomass refers to all animal and plant material, both dead and alive.

Ie: Wood, leaves, animal and human wastes, and food are all biomass.

Biogas is mainly methane, just like natural gas.


Physcial Science, Merrill

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