OF MICE AND MEN
KEY LITERARY ELEMENTS
the novel, the setting comes back to where it started.
piles made by many fires and the limbs of the sycamore tree have been smoothed by the many
men who have sat on it.
The ranch, where the major part of the story takes place, appears isolated and lonely. It includes
George – the protagonist and main character of the book. He is a caring, compassionate, and
Old Candy – one of the lonely ranch workers. He is a cripple, working as a ‘Swamper’.
Crooks – a black ranch hand. He is sensible and neat, with a mind of his own. He is a lonely
Curley – the boss’s son who is a light weight boxer. He picks fights with everybody on the ranch.
Curley’s wife – the only woman on the ranch. She is very flirtatious.
Carlson – a brutal man. He objects to Candy keeping his old dog.
Whit – a ranch worker. He is sent to town to fetch the Sheriff after Curley’s wife is murdered.
than anyone else.
Protagonist: The protagonist of the story is George. He is the kind-hearted ranch hand who is
concerned about his friend Lennie and watches out for him.
Antagonist: The antagonist of the story is George’s trying to care for the handicapped Lennie.
Because he has a giant’s body and a child’s mind, Lennie accidentally kills Curley’s wife; at the
Climax: The climax occurs when Lennie accidentally kills Curley’s wife. George knows that he
can no longer save Lennie, for Curley will want revenge.
friend and companion, Lennie, in order to save him from a brutal death. The death of Lennie also
The dominant mood of the story is that of expectation. This mood is developed through the
dreams of the major characters. The other mood that prevails is premonitory, of impending
doom. There are also other moods evoked through the actions of the characters reflecting sorrow,
pity, and brutality. The novel ends on a tragic note. The mood at the end is definitely one of
depression and frustration.
huge arms. During their conversation by the stream, George repeatedly asks Lennie to keep his
mouth shut on the ranch, suggesting that Lennie has some kind of problem. After supper and
before going to sleep, the two of them talk about their dream to own a piece of land.
The next day, George and Lennie travel to the ranch to start work. They are given two beds in
the bunkhouse. Then Old Candy introduces them to almost everybody on the ranch. They meet
the boss and the boss’s son Curley, who is quite rude. They also meet Curley’s wife when she
comes looking for her husband. She wears heavy make-up and possesses a flirtatious attitude.
George warns Lennie to behave his best around Curley and his wife. He also suggests that they
should meet by the pool if anything unfortunate happens to either of them on the ranch.
George and Lennie are assigned to work with Slim, who is sensible and ‘civilized’ and talks with
them. When Curley wrongly accuses Slim for talking to his wife, Slim gets very angry. Curley
apologizes to him in the bunkhouse in front of everybody, but his apology is rejected. Curley
George asks him to, Lennie obliges and crushes Curley’s hand. Curley agrees that he will not tell
anyone about his hand, for it would mean losing his self-respect.
While working on the ranch, George and Lennie continue to dream about owning their own piece
of land and make plans accordingly. Old Candy, one of the ranch hands, overhears their planning
and Lennie accept his proposal.
One evening, Lennie, looking for his puppy, enters the room of Crooks; since he is the only
black man on the ranch, Crooks lives alone, segregated from the other ranch workers. Candy
enters, looking for Lennie; the two of them tell Crooks about their dream of owning their own
ranch, but Crooks tells them that it will never happen, foreshadowing the truth. Curley’s wife
comes in and interrupts them. When Crooks objects to her presence in his room, she threatens
him with a false rape charge.
Later on, Lennie is seen alone in the barn, petting his dead pup. He has unintentionally killed it
when she feels Lennie’s strong hands. When she raises her voice to him, Lennie covers her
mouth. In the process, he accidentally breaks her neck and she dies. Knowing he has done
something terrible, he leaves the ranch. When the ranch hands learn that Curley’s wife has been
Lennie. They plan to murder him in retribution.
George guesses where Lennie is and races to the pool. To save him from the brutal assaults of
the ranch hands, George mercifully kills his friend himself. Hearing the gunshot, the searchers
converge by the pool. They praise George for his act. Only Slim understands the actual purpose
of George’s deed.
obtain, can forge friendship and give meaning to life. George and Lennie dream of owning a
them going and lightens the load of their work. It also solidifies their friendship.
anything, neither the puppy nor Curley’s wife. He is simply too slow to realize his own strength.
His retardation is the cause of his downfall and death, in spite of George’s trying to help him stay
out of trouble.
Lennie, Candy, Crooks, Curley’s wife, and Slim, express the sadness caused by their feelings of
characters very human.
writing, which was encouraged by his mother, a schoolteacher herself. He was a frequent
contributor to the school magazine.
marine biologist, he never completed a degree. The courses that attracted his attention most were
earn a living as a reporter and a free-lance writer, but was unsuccessful. Disappointed, he left
New York and returned to the West Coast, where he met his first wife, Carol.
English pirate of the sixteen hundreds. His next work, The Pastures of Heaven (1932), is a
Dubious Battle (1936) realistically portrays the labor strife in California during the nineteen
thirties. This novel also sets forth Steinbeck’s concept of “group humanity” through the character
(1941). Of Mice and Men (1937) became a best seller and was adapted for the stage and a movie.
In 1940 Steinbeck went on an expedition to the Gulf of California (also called The Sea of
Cortez) with his friend Ed Ricketts, a marine biologist. Steinbeck shared with him a deep interest
various conversations and speculations, and the second part describes the marine organisms
collected by the men.
(1961). East of Eden is Steinbeck’s longest and most ambitious work. It follows three generations
Steinbeck received the Pulitzer Prize in 1940 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. He died
on December 20, 1968, and is buried in Salinas, California, the place of his birth and setting for
many of his novels.
form of an extended short story. Steinbeck rejected the initial version of the story, for he felt that
he had been unable to keep his own voice and viewpoint out of its narration. Steinbeck reworked
and expanded the story, adding more characters. He also added more dialogue, taking particular
care to reflect the accent and dialect of uneducated farm workers. It is said that a large section of
the book was rewritten by Steinbeck again, for his original manuscript was chewed up by his
words of the poem are as follows:
The best laid schemes o’mice and men
Gang aft agley.
And leave us nought but grief and pain
For promised joy.
hopes and dreams. This is what happens with George and Lennie.
CHAPTER SUMMARIES AND NOTES
thin and bony nose and restless eyes. He also has strong hands and slender arms. George is
side. Both men are dressed in denim trousers, denim coats with brass buttons, black hats, and
blankets, which are wrapped around round their necks.
him, for the stream appears stagnant. George remarks that Lennie would drink from a gutter if he
were thirsty. George refreshes himself and lies down to rest. Lennie splashes in the water and
then joins George.
When George talks about going to the ranch, the forgetful Lennie does not seem to understand.
When Lennie inquires once more about what they are going to do there, George grows impatient.
Lennie apologizes, saying that he tries hard not to forget things. George explains to him once
again that they are going to work on a ranch, which is located nearby. He warns Lennie to refrain
from talking to anyone at the ranch and begs him to behave.
George notices Lennie reaching into his pocket and asks him to hand over whatever he is hiding
there. Lennie hands him a dead mouse that he has found along the road and put in his pocket to
pet. George throws it away in disgust. He then reminds Lennie that whenever he pets things, it
seems to get both of them in trouble, as it did on their last job. Lennie has already forgotten what
has happened there.
he returns, George sees that he is wet and carrying only one stick. He immediately knows that
Lennie has retrieved the dead mouse from where he has hurled it. George asks for the mouse,
and Lennie resists giving it to him. George explains that a dead mouse is not a fit pet and
demands that Lennie hand it over, which he does reluctantly. George then sends Lennie off to
look for wood again. When Lennie returns with enough sticks, they build a fire and warm up
three cans of beans for supper. While the beans are heating, Lennie asks for ketchup to go on his
his friend’s slowness and angrily explains all the things he could do without Lennie, including
going to a “cat house”, drinking lots of whiskey, and keeping a job.
Lennie knows that he has put George in a foul mood. Although he does not understand why
George is angry, he still tries to make up, saying that he will go away to some far-off hills and
live in a cave if George does not want them to stay together. George is touched by his friend’s
simplicity and honesty and reacts in a very understanding manner. He reassures Lennie that he
does not want him to go away. Lennie then asks George to tell him again about their dream.
George explains how the two of them are going to save their money and buy a ten acre farm,
where they can raise rabbits, cows, pigs, chicken, and cherries.
After dinner, George decides they should spend the night by the stream and head to the ranch in
the morning. He then reminds Lennie again about not talking to other people on the ranch. He
also tells him that if there is ever trouble on the ranch, Lennie should return to this same site and
hide in the near-by bushes, where George will come and find him. Lennie promises to remember
the place. They drift peacefully off to sleep, thinking about the little farm they want to own.
which Steinbeck knew very well. He then gives a physical description of the two major
characters, contrasting George’s small stature and Lennie’s giant body. George appears first,
leading his friend and suggesting that he is in control. Almost immediately, it becomes obvious
as to why, for Lennie is slow. Steinbeck describes him eagerly snorting water from the stagnant
stream as if he were a horse. When he sees what Lennie is doing, George commands him to stop,
for he does not want his friend to get sick. Suddenly, the stage is set for the entire novel. Lennie
is retarded, and George’s role is to watch over and protect him.
Lennie’s character as an innocent, immature, unthinking, and highly dependent character is
that he is told or has experienced, even though he tries and tries to remember; he cannot even
in his pocket for a pet, not understanding that it is dirty and unfit. He asks for things that are
impossible, demanding ketchup for his beans. George knows Lennie’s limitations and watches
out for his friend.
Quite contrary to Lennie’s gigantic body, which can do the work of two or three men, his spirit is
tender and gentle. Like a child, he is fond of petting soft things, like a mouse or rabbit. When he
upsets George, he offers to go away and live by himself in a cave. He constantly dreams of
owning a small farm, where he can raise some rabbits as pets. His fondness for small creatures is
symbolic of his identification with them. Just as rabbits are delicate and need to be protected
from preying animals, Lennie has to be constantly looked after by George.
George shows that he is a sensible man, who understands how he must care for Lennie. For his
friend’s own good, he knows that he must treat Lennie like a child, giving him the same
the problem created by Lennie at their previous work place, when he touched and held the soft
run from town. As a result, he repeatedly warns Lennie to refrain from touching things or talking
to the other workers on the next ranch. He also tells Lennie that if there is ever trouble, he should
return to the stream and hide in the bushes, where George will come and find him.
George is also shown to be caring and compassionate. Although he grows irritated with Lennie’s
him to go and live in a cave. He also constantly watches out for his welfare, insisting he not
drink the stagnant water or carry the dirty mouse. He also explains to Lennie more than once
how he should act on the ranch so that he can stay out of trouble. Most importantly, he includes
Lennie in his dreams, planning to take his friend with him to his ten-acre farm that he wants to
buy and promising him that he can raise rabbits there.
It is important to notice the close bond that exists between the two men. Although George does
grow frustrated with Lennie’s handicaps, they genuinely care about one another and plan their
future together. George states, “Guys like us. . .got no fambly. . .don’t belong no place. . .with us
it ain’t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn.” In the company
of each other, they do not feel loneliness in this stark and lonely landscape. This will be in sharp
contrast to the loneliness that the other workers feel on the isolated ranch.
It is also important to notice the foreshadowing that occurs in this first section of the book.
Lennie is fascinated with soft things; he hides the mouse in his pocket for it has a soft touch, and
he dreams of raising soft, furry rabbits. The fact that Lennie does not know his own strength is
also explained when he says, ‘I’d pet ‘em (mice), and pretty soon they bit my fingers and I
pinched their heads a little and then they was dead.’ George makes it clear that Lennie’s “petting”
things has gotten them into trouble before. He also explains that they have had to leave other jobs
quickly because of problems caused by Lennie. All of these facts foreshadow the trouble that
will occur on the new ranch.
It is finally important to remember that the title of the book is Of Mice and Men. In this first
chapter, both mice and men are introduced and discussed at length.
The next morning, George and Lennie reach the ranch around ten o’clock. They go to the
bunkhouse, a long rectangular room filled with beds and shelves made of apples boxes. The
room also has a table for playing cards. An old ranch hand assures George that the boss is a nice
man and that the place is very clean, in spite of the insect repellent that George spies on his bed.
explains that they had to walk a long way. When the boss asks for their names, George tells him
both names and explains that Lennie is a slow thinker but a strong, hard worker. He also says
that Lennie is his cousin, who he has watched after for a long time at his aunt’s request.
After the boss leaves, George reminds Lennie once again about behaving correctly and not
talking needlessly to the other ranch hands or to the boss. Candy, an old cripple who does some
of the small chores on the ranch, overhears their conversation. When George confronts him,
Candy denies hearing a word. Curley, the boss’s son, interrupts them; he has come looking for
Lennie, which angers Curley. He rudely demands that Lennie answer him directly in the future.
When Curley leaves, Candy tells George that the young man used to be a lightweight boxer and
picks fights with everybody, especially men that are bigger than he. As a forewarning, George
proclaims that Curley had better not attempt a fight with Lennie. Candy then tells George about
Curley’s new wife. He describes her as a flirtatious woman who has eyes for every man on the
ranch. After Candy leaves, George warns Lennie about Curley and tells him not to lose his
temper around him, no matter what happens. He also reminds Lennie of the hiding place by the
Curley’s wife enters, looking for her husband, and stays, flirting with George, even after she is
told that Curley has gone. Lennie, staring at her, outwardly shows he is impressed with her
beauty. After she leaves, George tells him he must not stare at her again and warns Lennie that
upset. He wants to leave the ranch and says that “this ain’t no good place. . .it’s mean here.”
George reminds him that they must earn some money if they are ever to have their own farm.
Lennie understands and agrees. Ironically, their staying on the ranch destroys the dream. For
once, George should have paid attention to Lennie’s intuition.
Slim, a ranch hand that commands respect, comes into the bunkhouse for lunch and strikes up a
conversation in a friendly tone. He asks George and Lennie to become part of his team. Carlson,
another ranch hand, walks in and talks about Slim’s dog having a new litter of pups. They decide
to give one of the puppies to Candy to replace his old, blind, and stinking mutt. When Candy and
Carlson leave, George promises to ask for one of the puppies for Lennie. He instinctively knows
that his friend wants one for a pet.
Curley comes in again, looking for his wife. When he leaves the room, George has a premonition
that Curley will cause problems.
In this second chapter, Steinbeck vividly describes the remaining important characters of the
story. Candy is pictured as old, bored, and physically handicapped, with a wooden stick for a
right arm. He is a keen observer as he goes about his chores and knows about most things that go
on at the ranch. He is compared to his old mutt, his constant companion. The boss of the ranch is
the second important person introduced in the chapter. Although described as a nice man, he is
irritable by nature and voices his displeasure when George answers the questions addressed to
Lennie. The boss’ son, Curley, is next introduced. He comes in with his hands covered in
Vaseline, for he wants them to remain soft and smooth for his wife. Although he is short, he is
solid, having trained as a lightweight boxer. He is also vain and rude, trying to mask his
insecurity and inferiority complex. To hide his weaknesses and size, he acts big and tries to pick
fights, enjoying hurting someone. He is a total contrast to Lennie, who is huge in stature and
hates hurting anything. As a person, Curley definitely introduces a note of the ominous into the
Curley’s wife is introduced next. She is painted as a vulgar woman who is quite proud of her
position on the ranch as the boss’s daughter-in-law. She wears heavy make-up and flirts with
every man on the ranch. Not understanding her appearance or her motives, the innocent Lennie
described as a man in his late thirties, who loves his job and is neat and clean. He is also a
thinking man, who ponders things. When he learns Lennie and George are together, he
comments, ‘I don’t know why many guys don’t travel together. Maybe the whole world is afraid
of each other.’
Again in this chapter, Steinbeck demonstrates how George protects Lennie. He answers the
boss’s questions about Lennie, even though it causes the boss to be angry. He does the same
when Curley questions Lennie. After learning about Curley’s background, George warns Lennie
to stay away from him. He also tells Lennie he must never again stare at Curley’s wife. George
obviously senses that things are not going to be easy for he and Lennie on the ranch with Curley
and his wife around. As a result, he reminds Lennie once again about the hiding place in the
bushes by the stream. In spite of his slowness, Lennie also has an ominous feeling about the
ranch and says, “This ain’t no good place.”
though he does not like Curley, he does not like it when the men tease Curley for wearing a
glove full of Vaseline. He says, “That’s a dirty thing to tell around.” George is also pictured as
being concerned about cleanliness, inspecting his bunk for bed bugs and asking questions about
the insecticide on the shelf. His cleanliness is in direct contrast to Lennie, who carries a dead,
dirty mouse in his pocket and thinks nothing of drinking stagnant water.
This end of the chapter focuses on the fact that Slim’s dog has given birth to puppies. Carlson
and Slim decide that Candy’s old, blind dog needs to be killed and replaced with one of the new
puppies. The manner in which the death of the dog is planned suggests the violence and brutality
of life on the ranch. When Lennie hears about the puppies, he immediately wants one for a pet.
The kind George promises to ask Slim for one.
It is important to notice the clear, simple style of this chapter. There is considerable dialogue that
gives a clear, crisp picture of the events that transpire in the bunkhouse, without making any
personal comment. He begins the scene by describing the physical bareness of the ranch and the
bunkhouse, creating a feeling of foreboding; by the end of the chapter, he has created a fully
ominous feeling, due to the personalities of Curley and his wife. Both George and Lennie have a
bad reaction to the ranch.
It is evening in the bunkhouse, and George is seen thanking Slim for giving one of his puppies to
Lennie. The modest Slim says it was nothing, for he might have wound up killing more of the
puppies anyway. Slim then comments that Lennie is a very hard worker and asks about their
friendship. George says that they have grown up together, sharing good times. He also tells Slim
that Lennie is dumb but not crazy and gives the example of when Lennie jumped into the river
without knowing how to swim. Slim listens to George very attentively and adds his own
observations about Lennie, saying he is definitely not a mean guy. He then asks George why they
had left their previous job. Though hesitant at first, George tells him about the episode when
Lennie touched the dress of the young girl, explaining that he was wrongly accused of attempted
rape; as a result, they had to run for their lives. When Lennie walks in, George is quick to see
that he has a puppy hidden in his shirt. George explains that handling it too much can hurt the
puppy and commands him to take it back to the barn; Lennie obeys. The way Lennie behaves
makes Slim comment that he is just like a kid. George agrees.
Old Candy walks into the bunkhouse with his old dog and asks for a drink of whisky for his
upset stomach. When Carlson arrives, he comments on the stinking smell of the dog in the room.
After much conversation in which Candy defends his old dog, Slim and Carlson persuade him to
get rid of the dog and promise a new puppy in its place. When Candy agrees, Carlson gets his
gun and leads the dog outside into the darkness. A gunshot is heard in the distance, and Old
Candy is visibly upset.
When George sits down to play a card game with Whit, Crooks comes in looking for Slim. He
complains about Lennie messing around with the pups. George tells Slim to drive Lennie away if
he is creating problems. George turns to the card game, but Whit does not seem interested. He
which has clean chairs and clean girls. George agrees to go with them, but says he will not spend
any money on the women. He is saving his money for the farm.
Carlson returns, cleaning his gun, and Lennie is with him. While Whit and Carlson are sharing a
joke about Curley’s wife, Curley himself barges into the room, asking the whereabouts of Slim.
Curious about what is going on, Whit follows Curley out, leaving Lennie and George together.
George inquires about the happenings inside the barn. Lennie assures him that he is not getting
into any trouble. Lennie then starts a conversation about their dream, and George describes each
and every detail as he sees it.
Listening in on the conversation, Old Candy is interested in their plan and says he will give them
his savings, about 300 dollars, if they will let him join them. He does not wanted to be treated
like his old dog and promises to do lots of the work. Though George hesitates initially, he
accepts Candy’s proposal, for 300 dollars is one-half of the money they need and brings them
closer to the fulfillment of their dream.
George decides to send off a down payment on the farm in the amount of one hundred dollars. A
clamor outside the room puts an end to their conversation. Slim, Carlson, and Curley enter the
room. Slim is quite furious with Curley for wrongly accusing him of talking to his wife. Curley
then tries to pick on Carlson, but he also dismisses him blatantly. Candy joins in the fray and
laughs at Curley for using a glove full of Vaseline to make his hand soft for his wife.
Unaffected by all the commotion, Lennie smiles as he continues to dream of the farmhouse.
Curley misinterprets his smiling and picks a fight with Lennie. Although he hits Lennie
repeatedly, Lennie remembers the warnings and does not defend himself against Curley. George
is outraged by the situation and encourages Lennie to strike back. Lennie quickly crushes
Curley’s right hand and throws him down. When George expresses his fear of losing their jobs,
Slim strikes a deal with Curley. He promises not to tell anyone about how Curley is injured if
Curley does not tell his dad about the incident. The vain Curley agrees to Slim’s plan before he is
taken to he hospital.
Although injured and bleeding himself, Lennie feels guilty about hurting Curley and repeatedly
asserts that the whole thing was not his fault. He begs George not to be mad at him and wants to
make sure he will still get to go to the farm and tend the rabbits. George is not the least bit angry,
Lennie is further developed in this chapter. Slim says he is likable and compliments him as a
hard worker. He wants to know more about George’s friendship with him. George explains that
Lennie is slow, but not crazy. He shares a significant incident with Slim. Once George told
Lennie to “go jump in a river.” Lennie, not understanding the comment, obeyed his friend
literally, even though he did not know how to swim. When George rescued him, Lennie was very
appreciative, forgetting that it was George who told him to jump. It is obvious that Lennie has
great respect for and child-like trust in George.
Slim is also developed in the chapter. He is a leader amongst the ranch hands, commanding
respect. It is also clear that he is mentally superior to the other workers. He appreciates the kind
of friendship that George and Lennie share and recognizes its rare quality. He also learns to look
is also self-confident and is not afraid to stand up to Curley when he falsely accuses him.
A portion of the chapter is devoted to Candy and his dog, and there are many parallels that can
be drawn between that pair and George and Lennie. Candy is devoted to his dog, and, in return, it
follows its master everywhere. In a similar manner, George is devoted to Lennie, who will
follow him anywhere. Candy’s dog emanates an awful odor which goes unnoticed by Candy;
they’ve been together for so long that Candy has gotten used to the stench. Similarly, Lennie can
be a nuisance and a pain, but George is so used to his presence that he barely notices Lennie’s
odd ways. Candy agrees to have his dog killed, for he realizes that it has become a social
nuisance. In a similar manner, George will kill Lennie, since he is judged to be a threat to
people. Before George shoots Lennie, he asks the latter to look away. After his dog’s death,
Candy feels lost and alone, foreshadowing how George will feel after Lennie is gone.
Steinbeck portrays the harsher side of life through Carlson. On a superficial level, he seems
totally brutal, caring only about his own discomfort in regards to Candy’s dog. In truth, his
very old, blind, crippled, and stinking. Carlson volunteers to shoot the dog to spare Candy from
having to do it himself. Later, Candy says he should have shot the dog himself. But Carlson sees
it as an act of mercy, just like George’s shooting Lennie is intended to be an act of mercy. The
reactions of the men to the two deaths is very different. In honor of Candy, they maintain a
respectful silence until they hear the gunshot announcing the dog’s death. Their conversation
afterwards is muted and respectful. After Lennie’s death, the men show no sensitivity to George;
only Slim appreciates what has happened and shows George any concern. In truth, they seem to
value the life of a dog more than the life of Lennie.
Although the dream of the farm is a recurring image in the first two chapters, it takes on a new
significance in this chapter. George and Lennie are different from the other workers on the farm
because they have a dream, a purpose. Their life has more meaning than going down to Susy’s
place. When Candy hears about the plans of George and Lennie, he wants to join them, hoping to
find peace and contentment in his last days. Now that he has lost his dog, his faithful companion,
go with them and promises to work hard. At first George hesitates to include Candy, but he
realizes that Candy’s proposition leads them closer to the fulfillment of the dream and accepts it.
The irony is that George and Lennie really do come close to fulfilling the dream. Had they been
able to leave the ranch, Lennie’s tragedy would have been avoided.
The first real conflict that Lennie has on the ranch occurs towards the end of this chapter.
When Slim and Carlson refuse to fight with Curley, he deliberately picks on Lennie, striking
him. Lennie remembers George’s warning and obeys, trying to stay out of trouble and not
striking back. When George sees what is happening, he urges Lennie to defend himself. In the
ensuing fight, Curley is thrown to the ground and his hand is crushed. Curley agrees to say that
his hand was crushed in a machine, not telling his father or the other ranch hands the truth, for he
is ashamed of his defeat. The reader is aware, however, that Curley will want his revenge.
After the fight, Lennie feels guilty, for he did not mean to really hurt Curley. He simply does not
know the power of his own brute strength, foreshadowing the tragedy at the end of the novel.
Lennie is also fearful that he has displeased George. His main concern is that he will not be
allowed to go to the farm or have any rabbits.
Lennie arrives at Crooks’ room looking for his pup. At first, the black man, who is a loner on the
ranch, is hostile towards him, saying that black men do not mix with white ones. His proud
attitude changes, however, when he observes Lennie’s childish conduct. He finally invites Lennie
into his well-kept room, but he does not know how to treat him. Crooks is at first cruel to Lennie,
teasing him about George not returning from the city. Lennie protests that such a thing would
never ever happen. Lennie then tells Crooks about the plan to buy a farm, and Crooks speaks
about himself, telling of his childhood. Lennie then turns the conversation to his dream of
owning rabbits. Crooks tells him that his dream is never going to be a reality, explaining that
many men have the same dream but never save enough money.
Searching for Lennie, old Candy makes his way to Crooks’ room. He is invited inside, where he
and Lennie have a conversation about the farm. When Crooks learns that they have saved almost
enough money to buy some land, he becomes interested in the dream and expresses a wish to
join them, working for his keep.
Curley’s wife walks in, looking for her husband. The men tell her he is not around and ask her to
leave. She desperately tries to strike up a conversation with them and complains about her
loneliness and how people treat her. She also says that she does not believe that Curley’s hand
was caught in a machine. In the conversation that follows, Candy reveals the dream of owning a
farmhouse to her. She reacts in a discouraging and condescending manner. She also finds out the
truth about her husband’s crushed hand.
The private Crooks grows upset about all the people in his room. He demands that Curley’s wife
leave immediately, which upsets her. Before she departs, she threatens him with a charge of
After she leaves, George arrives, looking for Lennie. He is upset to find Candy and his friend in
the black man’s room, telling him about the plans for the farm. He insists that they leave. As they
walk back to the bunkhouse, Crooks shouts to Candy that he can forget about him going with
them to the farm. The black realizes that his dream of comradeship can never be realized with a
This chapter emphasizes the theme of loneliness. Crooks, the only black man on the ranch, is
to visit him at his room, and he is routinely excluded from their activities. Because he feels the
prejudice of the other workers towards him, he has grown proud, aloof, and defensive.
Because of his simplicity, Lennie does not “see” Crooks’s color. He accepts him only as another
human being and thinks nothing about going to his room, looking for his pup. At first, Crooks
will not allow Lennie to come inside, saying that black and white do not mix. When he first hears
Lennie talk about the plan to buy a farm, he scoffs at the idea. When Candy reveals that they
almost have enough money saved for the land, Crooks wants to join them, hoping to escape his
isolation and loneliness.
Curley’s wife is also shown to be a lonely woman in this chapter. She craves an emotional
attachment with somebody who is understanding. When she protests against the unfriendly
attitudes of the men on the ranch towards her, she is actually complaining about the sense of
isolation in her life. She obviously dislikes her husband and stays with him only because she
does not have any alternative. She is also shown to be a very prejudiced woman. When Crooks
demands that she leave his room, she threatens to charge him with rape, which would mean
certain death for a black man.
Steinbeck, through the comments of Crooks and Curley’s wife, states that most great American
dreams are shattered, foreshadowing that George’s dream will not become a reality. Crooks tells
Lennie about the thousands of ranchmen who dream of owning a piece of land and who fail to
save the necessary money. Curley’s wife complains about the man who did not live up to his
promise of obtaining her dream, getting her into the movies. It is important to notice that when
Curley’s wife enters the room, she prevents the men from talking about their dream, just as her
death at the end of the novel prevents them from obtaining their dream. She is also indirectly the
cause of George having to face loneliness — without Lennie for a friend and companion.
A sad Lennie is alone in the barn on Sunday afternoon. He indulges in a monologue with his
dead puppy. He has accidentally killed it while they were playing. He is afraid that now George
will not let him have any rabbits on the farm. He thinks about burying the pup and not telling
George about it; but he knows that George, as always, will sense the truth.
Curley’s wife walks into the barn. Lennie takes a defensive stance against her, for George has
warned him to stay away from her. She, however, forces herself on him, growing emotional
when Lennie refuses to talk to her. She notices the dead puppy and tells him not to worry about
it, for no one will be upset. She also talks about her childhood and tells him about her loneliness.
She explains her story about the guy who promised to get her into the movies and failed to do so.
She even tells Lennie about how much she dislikes her husband. As she talks about her broken
dreams, she occasionally checks to see if Lennie is listening.
Lennie keeps telling Curley’s wife that he is not supposed to talk to her, but she ignores him.
When he tells her that he wants to raise rabbits, she asks why he likes them so much. Lennie
explains how he loves soft things. She asks Lennie if he would like to stroke her soft hair. When
Lennie does so, she grows fearful at the strength she feels in his hands. Raising her voice, she
asks him to stop. Lennie is scared that George is going to hear her, so he covers her mouth with
his huge palms in order to quiet her. He begs her to be quiet and bemoans the fact that she is
going to get him into trouble. She struggles to get away, but his strength is far too great for her
fragile body. With no intention of harming Curley’s wife, he shakes her and accidentally breaks
her neck, just as he has accidentally killed his puppy.
Lennie realizes the terrible mistake he has committed. He then remembers what George has
asked him to do in case of trouble. He picks up the dead puppy, quickly leaves the ranch, and
heads to the stream to hide in the bushes.
Old Candy comes searching for Lennie and finds Curley’s wife, who is dead. He is stunned by
dumbfounded. He realizes that Lennie is responsible for her death; but he also knows that it had
to have been an accident. Lennie is incapable of intentional murder. He also knows that Curley
and the other ranch hands will have no mercy on Lennie. George must think and act quickly. He
asks Candy to inform the others about the incident, and he heads back to the bunkhouse. Before
he looks for Curley, Candy curses the dead body, blaming her for ruining his plans for the farm.
When summoned, Curley is quick to guess who the culprit might be. He swears to kill Lennie as
soon as he is found. He organizes a search party, and tells the men to grab their guns. George
begs Curley not to shoot Lennie, but he does not agree. The men set out, armed with their
shotguns. Carlson reports that his gun is missing, and everyone assumes that Lennie has it.
The accidental death of the puppy in Lennie’s strong hands is intentional foreshadowing to
prepare the reader for the accidental death of Curley’s wife in Lennie’s strong hands. As the
chapter opens, Lennie is seen in the barn, grieving over the dead pup. He senses that he has done
something wrong, but feels it is not bad enough to cause him to hide in the bushes. At the same
have any rabbits.
Curley’s wife happens to appear in the barn when Lennie is most sad and vulnerable and, in spite
of Lennie’s opposition, sits next to him. She tells him not to worry about the dead puppy and
talks about her unrealized dreams and the loneliness she feels on the ranch. Lennie talks about
the farm that he and George are going to buy and the rabbits he is going to raise. When she
learns how much Lennie likes soft things, she flirtatiously asks him if he wants to stroke her soft
Unfortunately, Lennie does not know how to be gentle; his large hands are just too powerful.
Curley’s wife grows fearful, screams for him to stop, and struggles to get away. To silence her,
he covers her mouth and shakes her. As always, Lennie does not realize his strength and breaks
her neck. When he feels her limp body, he knows he has done something really terrible. He picks
up the dead pup and heads for the stream to hide in the brush.
Even though the scene in the barn must have been a violent one, Steinbeck is careful not to
convey that image. He simply shows Lennie whimpering as he covers the mouth of Curley’s
wife, begs her not to scream, and shakes her. Then he reveals her death with total simplicity,
stating, “And then she was still, for Lennie had broken her neck.” The style is remarkable, for the
words capture the suddenness of the act and the stillness of the moment.
In earlier chapters, the author has carefully developed Lennie as a totally naive innocent. He
remains the same innocent character, even after Curley’s wife is killed. It is clear to the reader
that Lennie intended no harm, and there was no malice. In fact, he is totally perplexed over what
has happened in the barn. The only thing he knows is that this is “trouble,” and he needs to go
and hide in the bushes. He also knows that when George finds out that he was talking to Curley’s
wife and what has happened to her, he will be angry and probably not let him have any rabbits.
When Curley rightly guesses who the culprit is, he wants revenge on Lennie — for his wife’s
death and for his crushed hand. He tells all the men to arm themselves for a search party. Carlson
reports that his gun is missing, and the assumption made by all is that Lennie has taken the pistol.
The reader, however, knows that Lennie has headed straight to the bushes and realizes that
George had a purpose in going to the bunkhouse alone.
It is important to realize that the death of Curley’s wife causes yet another shattered dream.
Candy is first to realize what will happen to their plans for the farm and curses her dead body for
destroying his hopes. George also knows that nothing will ever again be the same. He begs
Curley not to kill his friend, but there is no agreement. Ironically, George had earlier complained
that Lennie’s presence in his life prevented him from doing normal things; now he will find that
life without Lennie causes the real abnormality for him. He, like the other ranch hands, will learn
to live a life of loneliness.
Waiting for George, Lennie feels proud that he has remembered about coming to the stream, but
he feels terrible about Curley’s wife. He suddenly has a vision of his Aunt Clara talking to him.
She scolds him for his irresponsible behavior and for causing George trouble. When she
disappears from his sight, a giant rabbit appears in her place. Like Aunt Clara, the rabbit also
reprimands Lennie and adds that he is not worthy of tending rabbits. It also relays that George is
very upset with him and is going to beat him, but Lennie refuses to believe it, for George has
never been cruel. He screams out for George, who soon appears and quiets him. Lennie
confesses his mistake, and George tries to reassure his upset friend that everything is going to be
all right. In the conversation that follows, George repeats the dream to Lennie, who gets excited
and asks George to buy their farm right away.
When the voices of the ranch hands come closer, George asks Lennie to look away and try to
picture the farm in his mind. As Lennie stares out across the stream, George continues to talk
about the rabbits and tells Lennie he will soon be in a place where no one can hurt him. As he
speaks, George takes Carlson’s pistol and raises it behind Lennie’s head, without the latter
noticing. George pulls the trigger, and Lennie falls down dead. Hearing the gun shot, the men
him. The men ask if Lennie had Carlson’s gun, and George nods a ‘yes’. The men praise George
for a good job. Only Slim has any understanding of what has really happened. He tells George
that sometimes things just have to be done and insists upon buying George a drink. As they
leave, Slim assures George that “you hadda. . .I swear you hadda.”
Steinbeck has masterfully and powerfully created the last chapter. The novel ends by the stream,
in the same place it began. The repetition of the setting binds the story together. The pastoral
setting by the stream, however, is not as peaceful at the end of the novel. Between the start and
finish of the book, there have been a series of deaths. Candy’s dog has been shot to put it out of
its misery, and Lennie has killed his puppy by petting it too hard. Most importantly, Lennie has
accidentally killed Curley’s wife, which he knows is a terrible thing. As he sits by the stream
waiting for George, he is very troubled, and his imagination runs wild. He has visions of his
Aunt Clara and of a giant rabbit. Both scold him for his irresponsible behavior and the trouble
that he has caused George.
The chapter is filled with pathos. Lennie knows he has done something bad, but his simple mind
is unable to grasp the depth of trouble that he is in. He has no idea that his act is punishable by
death. His only concern is that George will be angry with him and might not let him tend the
rabbits. He even thinks again about going off and living by himself in order to save George from
having to put up with him. When the big rabbit in his vision taunts him, saying he is not worthy
of tending rabbits and that George is going to beat him for his behavior, Lennie cannot take it.
He tells the rabbit that George would never be mean to him. Not wanting to hear more, Lennie
then covers his ears and screams for George.
When George arrives at the stream, he already knows what he must do. He cannot allow the
ranch hands to cruelly kill his friend; instead, he will use Carlson’s pistol to do the horrible deed
himself. He does not want to be like Old Candy, regretting that he allowed someone else to kill
his best friend, his old dog. George also knows he will perform the act as quickly, kindly, and
mercifully as possible. First, however, he wants to calm Lennie down. He paints for him a
picture of their planned farm and asks Lennie to look away and imagine it. George wants Lennie
to die in happiness, believing the dream will come true. He also does not want Lennie to realize
what is happening to him; he does not want his friend to feel betrayed. It is important to realize
that Steinbeck shows George’s action to be one of mercy and kindness. He is faithful, loving, and
compassionate to Lennie to the very end, selflessly doing the thing that is hardest for him to do
Curley is furious, almost irrational, in this last chapter, but ironically the death of his wife wins
him great sympathy and support from the ranch hands. Until her murder, everyone on the ranch
had hated Curley. Now everyone rallies around him against Lennie. They also rally around
George when they realize he has killed Lennie. Earlier the men had shown great concern for
Candy over the killing of his dog. Unfortunately, they do not show the same respect and concern
to George over losing his companion and friend. Slim is the only one who understands how
George feels. As they walk away together for a drink, the mood is tragic. All hope for a better
future for George or Candy is lost, for the dream has died with Lennie.
George is the protagonist and one of the two main characters in Of Mice and Men. A
compassionate, kind, responsible, patient, and understanding man, he faithfully watches out for
Lennie, his retarded friend and constant companion. When Lennie gets into trouble, George
always helps him find a solution or get away. George is also shown to be a thinking person. He
knows he must discipline Lennie in order to help him, and he is often seen telling Lennie what he
has done wrong and what he must do to improve. He is also a planner, telling Lennie where he
should go if there is trouble on the ranch. He also works hard to make the dream of owing a ten-
acre farm become a reality. Unlike the other ranch hands that squander their money on women
and drink, George refuses to spend a dime frivolously, saving everything to make the dream
come true. He wants to buy the farm so that he and Lennie can live there, free from problems and
constraints caused by society.
Sometimes George is portrayed as an angry man, for he gets frustrated with Lennie’s slowness.
Although he scolds and even screams at him, he is never intentionally mean or cruel. Several
times George thinks about what he could do if Lennie were not around, but they are just idle
thoughts. George is legally free to desert the retarded man at any point in time; emotionally,
however, he is entirely bound to Lennie, as his protector and companion. Lennie also keeps
George from feeling the isolation and loneliness that possess the other ranch hands.
Because George cares for Lennie so deeply, he cannot allow him to die brutally at the hands of
Curley and the angry ranch hands. After painting the picture of the farm in Lennie’s mind one
last time, he takes Carlson’s pistol and mercifully shoots his friend, in a totally selfless act of
kindness. It was a terribly difficult thing for George to do, and at the end of the book, Steinbeck
paints him feeling lost and alone without his faithful companion and without a dream to keep
Lennie is George’s friend and constant companion, who is mentally retarded and highly
dependent on George. He suffers from a child’s mentality within a giant’s body. He is innocent
and forgetful like a child. He is also attracted to small, soft things because of his child-like,
gentle nature. Unfortunately, he often harms the things he loves accidentally. As a huge man
with heavy arms and powerful hands, he does not know or understand his own strength.
Lennie idolizes George, his kind caretaker, almost like a god. In Lennie’s eyes, George is totally
kind, faithful, and good. He tries hard to remember everything George tells him to do and obeys
him implicitly without asking any questions. Even though Lennie did not know how to swim, he
jumped in a river one time when George jokingly told him to do so. Because Lennie is slow,
forgetful, and powerful, he causes trouble for George wherever they go. They had to leave the
last job because Lennie reached out and grabbed the dress of a little girl and would not let go.
When she screamed, the townspeople came and blamed Lennie for attempted rape.
Lennie never means to cause problems. He did not mean to kill his puppy and greatly regrets that
it is dead. He tries to stay away from Curley and his wife, as George suggested. She, however,
comes to Lennie in the barn and tells him he can stroke her hair. When he is too rough, she
begins to scream and Lennie panics. When he covers her mouth and shakes her to be quiet, he
accidentally breaks her neck.
Throughout the book Lennie is portrayed as a dreamer. He longs to go and live on a farm with
George, away from the pressures and frustration of a society that always gets him in trouble. He
constantly dreams of raising soft rabbits to be his pets on the farm. He senses that there are
problems on the ranch and with Curley and begs George to take him away to the farm. At the end
of the novel, when he and George talk by the stream, Lennie again senses trouble and begs
George to get the farm quickly. When George pulls the trigger, Lennie is dreaming about the
farm and the rabbits, therefore, dying happily.
Candy is a very old ranch hand who is crippled and lonely. Steinbeck paints him as the sad,
only companion, is very much like him, old and crippled; but he also stinks and is blind. As a
result, the ranch hands insist that Candy allow them to shoot the old mutt. When the dog is dead,
Candy truly has nothing, no reason for existence. Then he overhears George and Lennie
discussing their dream of owning a farm. Candy asks permission to join them and offers his life
savings to help purchase the land. He wants to live his last days with a feeling of peace and
belonging. At the end of his days, Candy does not want to be treated like his old dog.
When Candy finds Curley’s wife dead, he is emotionally devastated and curses her body, not
because she has been killed, but because she put an end to his dream. He instinctively knows
who has killed Curley’s wife and what will happen to Lennie. As he realizes there will not be a
farm without Lennie, “His eyes are blinded with tears.” He is left only with the reality of his
lonely and isolated existence on the ranch.
Curley’s wife, the only woman on the ranch, is really a minor character in the story. In fact, she is
never actually named in the course of the book. She serves only as the instrument of the
destruction of Lennie and the dream. Steinbeck is not kind in his brief portrayal of her. She is a
coarse, vulgar woman who wears too much make-up and flirts with every ranch hand. She has
married Curley only because she had no other offers. Her true dream was to become an actress,
but the man who was supposed to help her get in the movies failed her.
Like all the characters on the ranch, other than Lennie and George, Curley’s wife feels very
lonely and isolated. She seems to hate her husband, as evidenced when she compliments Lennie
for crushing Curley’s right hand and granting permission for him to crush the other if need be.
wrong ways. It is strongly hinted that she has committed adultery, for Curley is always on the
lookout for her whereabouts, as if fearful of her disloyalty. It is her loneliness and her flirtatious
ways that lead her to her death. She sits beside Lennie in the barn, even though he protests
against it. Then she asks him to stroke her hair. It is a fatal mistake for her, because Lennie
cannot be gentle. When she screams out of fear for his strength, Lennie panics. He covers her
mouth and shakes her to be quiet; in the process he breaks her neck.
Curley is the boss’ son, who has a short stature and a large temper. To make up for his small size,
he became a lightweight boxer. Now he constantly tries to pick fights, especially with people
bigger than himself, gaining great pleasure over their defeat. Curley’s attitude suggests that he
has a grudge against everyone whom he meets. He is overly possessive of his wife and suspects
that every man on the ranch desires her. He wears a glove full of Vaseline to keep his hand soft
for her and it becomes a source of constant jokes amongst the ranch hands. Though he seems to
love his wife, he is an immoral character, visiting brothels on Saturday nights.
When Curley picks a fight with the giant Lennie, he bites off more than he can handle. Lennie
quickly crushes his hand, and Curley has to be taken to the hospital. He vows to get revenge on
Lennie. His opportunity comes quickly. When Lennie accidentally kills Curley’s wife, her
husband shows no mercy. He quickly organizes a search party to look for Lennie and promises to
kill him immediately. Although Curley has been hated for his meanness throughout the book, the
ranch hands now rally round him.
Armed and ready, they go off with Curley to search for Lennie, eager for blood. Ironically,
George stands in the way of Curley’s being able to get his revenge, for he mercifully kills Lennie
to save him from Curley’s wrath and a brutal death.
Compared to his co-workers, Slim is confident in his conduct and clear in his speech. As a result,
he is treated with respect on the ranch. Steinbeck portrays him as a thinker, “His ears heard more
beyond thought.” He is quite surprised to see the loyalty and companionship of George and
Lennie and comments, “Ain’t many guys travel around together, I don’t know why. May be
everybody in the whole damn world is scared of each other.” He is a good judge of people and
quickly understands, that in spite of his size, “Lennie ain’t mean”. When Lennie crushes Curley’s
hand, it is Slim who convinces him not to tell anyone about his fight with Lennie. He is also the
only one to understand why George has shot Lennie at the end of the novel and reassures him
that he had to do it. He then insists upon taking George into town and buying him a drink.
Of Mice and Men is almost a long short story, divided into six chapters. Steinbeck takes great
describing the isolated setting, introducing the characters, and developing the relationship
between Lennie and George. The rising action begins in the third chapter with the confrontation
between Curley and Lennie. When the huge man easily crushes Curley’s hand, his strength is
actually seen for the first time and foreshadows that there will be trouble on the ranch. The fourth
part of the book focuses on the theme of loneliness and develops Curley’s wife, who is shown to
be a lonely woman, constantly seeking company. In the fifth chapter, her loneliness leads her
into the barn, where she engages Lennie in conversation. It has been clearly foreshadowed that
nothing good can happen in this encounter. In fact, Curley’s wife is the instrument causing the
tragic ending of the book. In a flirtatious manner, she asks Lennie to stroke her soft hair. When
she feels his powerful hands that do not know how to be gentle, she panics, screams for help, and