Nineteenth Century


Nineteenth Century Essay, Research Paper

The agricultural Revolution in Britain changed several things. It improved farming by increasing the amount and variety of food produced. Crop rotation helped farmers get better crops, and they also left one field fallow, for animals to graze on. Because of this, more meat was available, which lowered the price for meat, and also gave people better diets. Also, farm machines were made which increased food production, such as the seed drill, made by Jethro Tull. This made it so farmers could plant crops in a straight row, making harvesting crops much easier. The enclosure movement made agriculture more efficient because wealthy landowners farmed larger amounts of land and experimented with new crops. It contributed to the Industrial Revolution because population increased, due to healthier diets, which expanded life expectancy. Because of this, the demand for manufactured goods came around, which started the Industrial Revolution.

Britain led the Industrial Revolution because of the Agricultural Revolution, which increased food production, which in turn freed many laborers to work in industry. Also, Britain had lots of coal and iron resources, and had an excellent transportation system to speed the flow of goods. Belgium also started to industrialize so early because they had large amounts of coal and iron. Also, they started because of their long tradition of manufacturing textiles. Therefore, it had a strong, skilled work force to work in industry.

Some improvements in communications were the discoveries in the field of electronics. In 1866, workers first completed an underwater telegraph cable. 1876, Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone. Guglielmo Marconi developed a way to send electric signals without wire or cable, which was called a radio. Some improvements in transportation were the internal combustion engine which had better advantages than the steam engine. This led to the invention of cars, and triggered many more booms in other industries.

The Industrial Revolution increased population in cities because of the medical achievements such as the public sanitation, which reduced the number of deaths. It was a problem for cities because some of them sprung up overnight as people looked for work. Then workplaces got crowded with unskilled workers, which slowed down expected production rates, and caused many accidents. Wages were also low. It also expanded the size of the middle class because of the many factories which were run by wealthy members of the middle class. Also, the population boom helped increase the number of the middle class.

The types of reforms the government made were reforms to help make factories a better place to work in then what they were, such as limiting hours, improving standards of workplaces, women could not work in factories. Since people demanded reforms, parliament began to change the workplaces, and decided to make reforms, so that the workers would be happy.

Critical Thinking:

Corporations helped in bringing up small companies. Corporations also helps finance business, as industry began to run expensive. People invested money into corporations to make them be possible, and also share in profits.

The industrial Revolution transformed us from a primitive time where production was slow, to a time of fast paced technology, and production. Manufactured goods helped speed up production, and inventions helped spring new ideas, which in turn brought more and more inventions which helped speed up production in the industry. Also, as production was speeding up, companies were too, so they demanded workers, which gave everyone a chance to earn money to make a living

How did the selection of members of the British Parliament become more democratic during the 1800’s?Reform Bill of 1832: gave more industrial areas more representation in Parliament, and it extended suffrage, or the right to vote to virtually all middle-class men.Chartist Movement: demanded secret ballot and universal male suffrage, or the vote for all adult men. Also they demanded for the members of Parliament to have a salary so the poorer class could afford to serve. None of their demands of the Chartist movement were met before it died out in 1850s, but moss of them eventually did become low.Corn Laws: Parliament passed the Corn Laws, which put tariff, or tax, on imported grain. Farmers and landlords like this, because it gave them more money. City folks hated this because they had to pay more. People fought for the appeal of this law, and it did when there was a grain shortage.House of commons passed a bill to reduce the power of the House of Lords, by ending its right to veto measures.

Which political parties supported the growth of democracy? Why?

During the reforms, both parties favored democracy, Liberals and Conservatives. They both competed for better reforms to win support from the new working-class voters.

How did Irish Catholics react to Protestant political and economic control of Ireland during the 1800’s?They resented the taxes they had to pay to the Anglican Church and the high rents that Irish Catholic peasants had to pay to Protestant landlords.Hatred increased when the 1845 potato famine struckBritish did little to helpCatholics wanted home rule for Ireland1869 and Act was passed to free Catholics from paying taxes to support the Anglican ChurchTwo land acts passed in 1870 and 1881 protected Irish peasants from sudden eviction from their land, made rents fairer, and made it possible for them to buy land.

What was the response of the British government to Irish demands?

At first, they resisted any kind of demands that the Irish proposed. But later on, when the Irish threatened to revolt, the British government gave into many of their demands.

How did Napoleon III’s foreign policy lead to his downfall?French Catholics bitterly resented the governments support for Italian nationalists at the expense of the papacy during Italy’s struggle for unificationNapoleon’s role in Mexicohe invaded Mexico because they failed to pay debts.he was ousted out when the U.S.A came in and helped MexicoFranco-Prussian Warthe Prussian’s surrounded the French army at Sedan and captured the emperor Napoleon surrenderedend of 2nd Republic, start of 3rd Republic

How was the Third Republic created in France?National Assemblycomposed to the Chamber of Deputies, and a Senatelocal government officials elected members of the Senatechose a president of Francebut the real power was in the hands of the cabinet of ministries that were responsible for the N.A

Why did the circumstances in which it was set up threatened its existence? The creation of the 3rd Republic was in a hurry, and was not stable. The setup of the parties was in shambles. There were over 12 parties, which made them use coalitions, or the temporary alliances of parties. With this, many parties broke up and allied. Also the setup in the government was not done well. Many of the officials were accused of bribery, and corruption

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