Lithosphere Essay, Research Paper

Notes on the lithosphere- (rock sphere) Upper most part is crust of earth. Compiled of rocks of outer crust. Outermost shell. Upper part- rocks we see at and near the earths surface. Crust is 5 to 10 km thick under most oceans and 24 to 60 km thick under the continents. The lithosphere under the crust is solid, dense material. (more dense than surface materials). Lithosphere 100-200 km. Notes on the aesthenosphere- zone beneath the lithosphere. Thick like tar. Weak because of high teperatures at that depth. Density- 2.7-3.4 to about 12. Notes on the hydrosphere- (Water-bearing) Too small due to the irregularity of upward projection. Density-1.1 Notes on the Atmosphere- only 10 km thick layer of gas which is the basis of human life. Dens. 0.0.

Reactions within- litho to hydro, none besides movement of sand and other free floating particles, absorbtion. Hydro to atmo, evaporation, precipitation, mater, energy, gases, salt, oxygen, carbon dioxide. Litho to atmo, none besides precipitation. Silicon tetrahedron- tetrahedron, a shape of a crystal. If a quartz crystal, (SiO) is broken, then it would shatter. A feldspar (Al,Si,O,Ca,Na) is split, it would evenly cleave. Of all rocks- O=46% Si=28%. Basic structure- 4 oxygen, one Si, i n the shape of a pyramid. Such a foundation is a Si tetrahedron. Silicates are the most common family of minerals. Tetrahedrons- Si + O2= 75% of all. Rocks are classified- by how they are formed. Igneous rocks- are usually not porous. They solidify from a molten state. Are further classified as plutonic (intrusive) and volcanic (extrusive). Volcanic solidify on the earth?s surface. Plutonic solidify below the earth?s surface. Metamorphic rocks solidify (changed form) are se!

dimentary or igneous rocks in which the minerals or texture or both have been changed by high pressures and temperatures without melting. Sedimentary Rocks- are made up of sediment (rock and mineral fragments) carried over the earth?s surfarce mostly by streams and deposited in layers on the ocean floor. Examples include, granite, sandstone. Air masses- Cold Fronts- The Interface at which cold air replaces warm air. Cold Fronts usually come after the warm fronts in such a system. In fact, it is usually followed by rain. Formed by air flowing over the land and ocean that situates in the tropics, continents, oceans. CT, CP, MT, MP Warm fronts- the interface where warm air replaces cold air. Signified by semicircles. salinity- The number of grams of dissolved material in 1000 grams of seawater. Salinity is usually relative to salt. In the ocean, there is approx. 35 grams of salt per thousand. It is developed by the movement of dissolved particles towards a basin of!

water. Sodium and chlorine atoms make up about 85% of all. Ions of just 6 elements make up more than 99% of the ions. Relative amounts: Chlor 55.2%; Sod 30.5; Sulfate 7.7; Magnes 3.7; Calc 1.2; Pot 1.1; All others .7 percent of all ions. Exe. 100 grams seawater, 965 grams water, 35 grams salts. Na + Cl -. Trace elements are extremely small in the development of water. They make up the other one percent of the ions in seawater. Winds are the cheif cause of waves and ocean movements of that type. Each wave has a top, or crest. Each has a bnottom, or trough. Height equals crest minus trough. Crest to crest legnth is wavelegnth. Time between crests is called the period. Period equals wavelegnth divided by period. Over deep water, waves with long wavelegnths travel faster than those with short wavelegnths. Long waves crashing on a beach are usually a sign of an upcoming storm. When the water is deeper than one-half the wave legnth, the water particles move around!

in circles. The diameter equals the wave height. Deeper and deeper, diameters decrease. One half legnth of wave, no detectable motion. Waves break because bottom particles are dragged on floor as upper particles race ahead. The result is a breaking wave. Waves bend at beaches to become parallel because when water is shallower, the waves slow down, thus giving the oblique angled waves a chance to catch up. Currents are caused by winds at the ocean?s surface. The sun is the basic source of energy for ocean currents. It is the wind that turns the sun?s radiant energy into the kinetic energy of the currents. The water is pushed ahead of the wind that blows it. Density currents- or ?deep currents? flow because of the differences in densitys from one place in the sea to another. The density of seawater depends on temperature and salinity. The transfer of matter and energy both change the salinity and temperature. They effect climate in that equatorial currents make !

the water warmenr and polar currents make the water colder. Arctic waters are currential because of their temp. They are cold, they sink to the bottom, they slide down the slopes. When one source of deep water is is forced below another due to its density (structured by salinity and temperature), it rushes down a slope of land and thus produces a strong current of water. Stable air- When the atmosphere resists to either rise or sink. It develops subtle clouds such as stratus which produce a long, steady rain. When air continues to move andf gains speed as if it were given a slight push upward or downward, it is unstable. Such a cloud form, is the leading factor for clouds like cumulonimbus. Funnel systems- N.H. L. N.H. H. S.H. L. SH. H. Cyclone- Inward flowing of air as it converges toward the center. Anticyclone- Where the wind spirals outward form a point of H. Clouds are formed by the cooling of air as it rises on condensation nuclei. Cl!

imate- The history of the weather over a long period of time over a certain area. Energy the earth recieves from the sun is the single most important factor controlling the earth?s climate .It is known as insolation. The astmosphere itself is also a vital factor. The atmosphere causes the greenhouse effect. The things that cause climate is the atmosphere which are caused by climate, position on earth, seasons, moisture, land, water and topography. Deserts usually at areas of high pressures that are situated usually on the eastern sides of continents. Cold ocean currents flow toward the western shores of continents. Western part of high pressure system is usually moist. Northern flow usually drier. Climate is also affected by the position near oceans. There are m,oderate temps near the ocean all year round, because it cools the landin the summer and heats it in the winter. Evapotranspiration- evaporation and transpiration combination. The only means by which capil!

lary water can be removed from the soil. Evapotranspiration is difficult to measure accurately. Temperature is a main factor of greater ET. Capillary Water- Water stored in the form of tiny droplets that are held together by the molecular attraction between the water and soil particles. Cannot be drawn down by gravity. It can only be removed by evaporation into the air through soil openings or absorbtion by plant roots. It allows plants to survive long periods between rainfalls. The amount of water saturated in the soil depends on the size of the water particles. WIth smaller particles, more capillary water can be held, but it takes longer to saturate. Loam= sand+clay. Porosity- The percentage of space betwen the particles. The larger the particles, the greater the porosity. Permeability- the time necessary for all the water to drain through particles. The larger the particles, the greater the porosity. Retention- is a particle?s ability to keep water within its!

elf. the greater the size of the particle, the less the retention. (due to increased surface area). Runoff- Water that flows on the surface or through the ground into streams and lakes. Excess runoff usually causes floods. It is caused when pore spaces are filled up and there is no other place for the downfall to fall. Spring- where water is forced by gravity off the side of the mountain through a crack in an impermeable layer. Artesian Well- Where a porous layer is surrounded by two non-porous layers. When there is pressure in the non-porous layers, force is increased. This force continues to build until a crack in the earth?s surface opens up. At this point, the water rusheds through. It is not effected by foral rain. The pressure is determined by the gradient of the intake to the base. Water table- the top of a saturated soil zone. A visible water table is the surface of a river or stream. It is effected by the moisture of any given area. Zone of Saturation!

- the zone which modifies the water table. When moisture income is greater than the moisture loss, the table rises. When the water table is higher than nearby streams and valleys, it forms streams and rivers. The opposite may also occur. Evapotranspiration- is the greatest when there is a lot of moisture and vegetation. Water Cycle- 64% Evapotranspired; 11% infiltrated; 25% runoff. The exchange of water among the oceain, the air, and the land. Water vapor from land rises, turns to clouds. Clouds precipitate on land and ocean. Moisture again rises and the process continues. Eutrophication- The last stage in the aging process of a lake when there is an overabundance of algae which decreases the oxygen level. When a lake becomes a swamp, and eventually an area of land. Hastened by nutrients of sewage. The ever so popular Water Budget- A water balance. It accounts for the income, storage, and loss of water over a certain area. Most places have a surplus for a part o!

f a year (usually the cool season) and not enough water at another season (usually the warm one). Deserts have a year round deficit. Soil moisturew usually decreases during the warm season due to high and demanding evapotranspiration. It is usually a surplus in the winter because many of the plants are dead, the angles and rays of the sun are less direct, and the days are shorter. Melting snow releases large quantities of water. In most humid areas, the annual cycle of moisturwe surplus and deficit repeats itself in much the same way year after year. Within the larger annual cycle of of income, storage and outgo are transformed into a number of smaller cycles that are repeated each time it rains. With the passage of each storm there is a period of soil moisture recharge followed by withdrawal. Droughts or floods are a part of it. Floods (excessive surplus) runoff to rivers, extending such banks. Land is most commonly reffered to as washed away in dry regions. Radioa!

ctivity (radiant)- The giving off of energy and charged particles by certain atoms. The nucleus of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons. + charged protons of the nucleus repel and the uncharched neutrons add mass to the nucleus. Thus the balance between the repelling and binding forces in the nuclei of some kinds of atoms ios often disturbed. (Henri Becquerel pioneered radioactivity). Thus the nuclei split apart and energy and charged particles are often given off. This is known as radioactive decay. A radioactive element decays, or loses some energy or charged particles, to form another, more stable element. Because the rate of particular elements decay have been determined, it is possible to date certain objects. Because even a very small sample of a radioactive element contains billions of charged particles, the average rate of decay can be determined. Once this average is found, calculations can be made to find out the amount of time necessary for one half!

of the element to decay. This time is called half life. Carbon14 data is easy to recognize the age of a certain object. Radiocarbon is continuously forming in the Earth?s upper atmosphere. This happens naturally as nitrogen atoms (14N) are hit by high-energy cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are streams of fast moving particles from atoms that reach the earth from space. Once the c14 atoms are formed, they can unite with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. The radiocarbon dating method is used in that, for example, 14CO2 enters a living tree in a certain amount. When the tree dies and decays, the amount of C14 in the wood decreases. Scientists could then determine the date by measuring the ratio of the two. Ahh! The time line!- Principle of superposition- The idea that the oldest layer of rocks in a series is the one on bottom. Principle of Uniformitarianism- The idea that the same processes that affect the earth today also affected the earth in the past. (James Hutton) Fossi!

l Correlation- Matching rock layers by using fossils that are characteristic of particular layers. (William Smith). Correlated series of ages matched obtained locally. Geologic Time Scale- A scale representing the major eras, epochs, and periods. Era- largest division of time units. Period- division of era. Epoch- division of period. Man cam toward the end, mammal life in middle, etc. Earthquake- a dramatic shifting of the Earth?s crust. It is usually reflected by movements of the lava below the crust or continental movement in general. When earthquakes are finished, they usually shift back into place and thus form aftershocks. They may continue for months after the original shock. One way that energy travels through matter is waves. One way that energy leaves an earthquake is through seismic waves. Seismic waves radiate from the focus, or point of origin. Seismic waves are not very high. Because most of the the waves are short it is necessary to develo sensi!

tive instruments. There are different types of seismic waves compressional or P waves. When a compressional, individual particles move back and forth. The action is like the contraction and expansion of a spring. P waves travel at thousands of miles per hour. P waves can travel through gases, solids, and liquids. A shear or S wave are slower cause individual rock particles to move. Such waves cannot pass through liquids or gases. P and S waves travel through the earth. Love waves have no movement and produce a shearing motion in the ground. Rayleigh Waves- pass through surface rocks and produce both horizontal and vertical motions. The following are the most responsible for earthquake destruction. Seismologist- earthqiuake studier. Magnitude- the amount of energy released at the quake?s focus. Richter Scale- describes intensity and magnitude of quake. Modified Mercalli Scale of Earthquake Intensity. Measures the damage of earthquake and its effects on stud!

ents. 6 or higher on Richter scale is significant. P waves come way before S waves.

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