economics. A many years of study, much of it spent in England, he believed
that he understood more deeply than anyone who had ever lived before him
businesses, whom he called ‘capitalists’ or ‘the bourgeosie’, and the
therefore forced to work for wage whom he called ‘workers’.
equality and social justice was impossible. The only way to establish
justice, he said, was for t workers to overthrow the capitalists by means
their rulers. “Workers of the world unite!” he wrote. “You have nothing to
lose but your chains.”
Another thing Marx taught was that organized religion, the churches,
according to Mar ‘the opiate of the masses’. The church tells working
people to forget about the injustice they meet in their lives and to think
instead of how wonderful it will in the after- life when they go to heaven.
Marx, with his colleague, Engels, spread his ideas in two famous
books, Capital’ and ‘The Communist Manifesto’.
ide Marx. The Russian people were extremely discontented with their ruler,
Tsar Nicholas II, who had little interest in governing and was neglecting
the count badly. Making conditions even more miserable for the people were
the hardships the First World War and a particularly cold winter.
By 1917, the Russian people were desperate enough to accept a
revolution. fact, they got two for the price of one, the first in March
when the Tsar was deposed and a provisional government was set up. Then in
Trotsky, began to build a Russia, one built on the ideas of Marx, where
everyone was equal, where all property was owned by ‘the people’ rather
than by capitalists and where the two were in control of the government.
and France, who wanted to get rid of the communist government. They were
afraid the workers in their own countries might be inspired to imitate the
example of Rus Trotsky, a highly intelligent and energetic communist
leader, led the defence Russia with great success.
brilliant intellectual and an idealist, Stalin was a simpler, quieter sort
alliances with other member of the Communist Party. While Trotsky believed
in Russia’s trying to assist two all over the world to rise up in communist
revolutions against their bosses, S wanted Russia to take care of its own
The rivalry between the two leaders went on for several years.
Eventually 1929 Stalin gained the upper hand and drove Trotsky from Russia.
Stalin later up a scheme to industrialize the backward country which he
called the Five-Yea Plan. It included a number of Trotsky’s ideas which
Stalin had previously oppo
As Russia developed under Stalin, members of the Communist Party took
received service, but it became clearer and clearer that members of the
Communist Party becoming a ruling class that was not equal to non-members.
Most important of all to Stalin was ensuring that he remained in
power. H often used the most brutal tactics. Chief among his creations were
which more and m promoted the idea of Stalin as a great, nearly god-like
leader, and a secret p force which kept the country quiet through the use
of terror. At one point during his rule, he organized ‘Show Trials’ in
which many of the people he did not lie strangely ‘confessed’ to very
Eventually Stalin began trading with non-communist countries of
attacked Russia. In 1941 St was forced to enter World War II and make an
alliance with Britain and America
you see, nearly every event in the novel can be traced directly to an event
in Rus during the period from 1900- 1943. An interesting project is to list
the events the novel and match them up with the real events which Orwell
Major’s skull, and the h destroying their own eggs, both refer to specific
events that took place during rule of Stalin.