`Aim. To find out
the empirical formulae for magnesium-oxideIntroduction. The
empirical formula of a compound tells us the types of atoms present in a
compound as well as the simplest whole-number ratio of the different types of
and the mass of magnesium oxide produced you can determine the mass of oxygen
used. The ratio between number of moles of magnesium used and number of moles
of oxygen used can be calculated and the empirical formula can be written on
group 2 and can has ?2 bands. Both magnesium and oxygen need to join each other
to lose or gain electrons. Magnesium: ? Oxygen: Mg²+O²¯=MgOWhen magnesium and oxygen coincide they
cancel each other out and therefore are completely compatible.Apparatus. 1.
Bunsen burner 2.
Crucible and Lid 5.
Heatproof mat 7.
Safety glasses 8.
MagnesiumDiagram. ? Method. 1. Place a
supported by a tripod. Adjust the flame of a Bunsen burner so that the crucible
is just above the hot part of the flame. Heat the crucible strongly for five
minutes.? The bottom of the crucible
should glow red during the heating.2. Remove
cool.? After the crucible has cooled to
out 0.3g of magnesium and place it into the crucible.? Weigh the magnesium, crucible and cover on an analytical
balance.? Record the weight to 0.001 g. 4.
At frequent intervals, remove the burner and slightly lift the crucible lid
using tongs, quickly replacing the lid so as to lose as little magnesium oxide
’smoke’ as possible. Repeat the process patiently until the magnesium ceases to
flare up, then remove the lid and heat strongly to make sure that combustion is
complete and all the metal has been converted into oxide. You should not be
replace the lid and reweigh the whole. Record the mass. 5.
make this a fair test we weighed the empty crucible and lid before
adding magnesium. This means that the different weights of the crucibles could
thoroughly making sure that there was no excess foreign materials of any sort
to tamper with the chemical reaction.Variables. – The amount of magnesium used in the experiment. – How long it had been left burning for. – How much air you let in it when lifting up the lid. If I were to do this experiment again I would carry it out
in a fume cupboard to make sure nothing but pure oxygen will be allowed to come
forming Magnesium Nitrate (Mg3N2). When
magnesium metal is burned in pure oxygen, the only product is magnesium
oxide. If a sample of Mg is weighted before and after combustion,
then the increase in mass is equal to the mass of oxygen that is combined with
Mg. From a knowledge of the mass of Mg and the mass of combined O, the
empirical formula of magnesium oxide can be calculated. There
is only one problem with this straight forward approach. It is more usual
to burn things in air than in pure oxygen. Air is about 80%
nitrogen. So burning Mg in air results not only in the formation of
magnesium oxide, but also a small amount of a "byproduct", magnesium
nitride. Not all the Mg was burned. There is not
much to do about this, just make sure that you have followed the method
correctly and look out for all the signs of the magnesium being present. I
recommend doing this experiment in a fume cupboard so that any products of the
combustion do not escape with the gas as you lift up the lid of the crucible to
let oxygen in. at lest it will stay in one concentrated area and not around the
Safety. ????????? As
we were dealing with chemicals and heat during the course of this test it was
clean and tidy with no unnecessary objects lying around on it. – Were cautious about burning magnesium as
at it.? – Were careful to wear out protective
glasses on at all times. – Used tongs to move the equipment about
as we were dealing with hot things. – Stood up during the experiment. – Never left the apparatus unattended and
kept a close eye on it at all times noting the changes taking place. – Put the Bunsen burner on the safety
flame when not in use to prevent any mishaps – Made sure we didn?t inhale any ?smoke?
when the magnesium was being burned. Results. Crucible+lid
(g) 1 19.9 20.2 0.3 20.4 0.2 2 25.2 25.6 0.4 25.9 0.3 3 24.8 25.1 0.3 25.3 0.2 4 16.3 16.6 0.3 16.8 0.2 5 11.8 12.1 0.3 12.3 0.2 Total
Weight (grammes) 1.6 1.1 RAM 24 16 Molecules 0.07 0.069 Conclusion. From my results I can tell that 0.067 molecules of magnesium had
combined with 0.069 moles of oxygen, I predict that 1 mole of magnesium will
combine with 0.069/0.067 or 1.031 moles of oxygen. I think that if this experiment had been carried out in a proper
laboratory with no interferences you would find that the ratio for this
combustion would be very close to 1:1. Which would justify my prediction to be