A world consists of societies, a society consists of groups, and a group consists of individuals. People who share common purposes or goals would form a group. Common purposes or goals create solidarity – the sense of we-ness in a group. As the forms of solidarity, attraction, loyalty, identification and association exists in a group. What does attraction, loyalty, identification and association mean in the relationships among individuals in a group. In what occasion, these things can be seen in real life. A group can be also formed by people who share common characteristics or conditions. How Samuel P. Oliner, one of Holocaust survivor, think the difference of groups in such extreme condition. To accomplish a task sometimes needs help, but wants to accomplish without any assistance. Eventually failed to accomplish the task. In what situation can this dilemma, which is caused by persistence and attachment to a task, be seen? As well as an individual has conflict in his/herself, groups, which formed by individuals, have conflict in themselves. It is sometimes called social conflict.
What are attraction, loyalty, identification and association as forms of solidarity? In the textbook attraction is defined as positive affective attachment to another person (71). This definition can be applied to the relationship between boyfriend and girlfriend, husband and wife, and either father or mother and child. For example, the relationship between boyfriend and girlfriend might be heavily depended on attraction to each other because until they met together, they are completely unknown different two individuals who have nothing in common. Then once positive relationship is built, it seems everything is common between them. They even might think they are born to be together. And if the relationship based on attraction works out, these two people, used to be completely two different people, would get married and become a pair of two people. This would not be happened, unless the attraction exists between them. The attraction in the relationship between boyfriend and girlfriend or husband and wife could be caused by his or her characteristics, social status or physical features, but there is technically no genetic connection between these two people. However the relationship between father or mother and child is genetically as well as the attraction to each other. Although mother or father and child is genetically connected, if there is no attraction to each other, it does not mean anything. For instance, in the abuse of genetic child by birth mother, the mother may not have any attraction to her child. On the other hand, good relationship between a stepmother and adopted child might be a good example of attraction.
“Japanese people work for the company rather than for his or her family.” This might be one of popular topics when American people make fun of Japanese. When Japanese people were called “Economic Animal” (they still might be called so?), the loyalty of Japanese people (in this case people who are working for a company) to a company was stronger than that of to a family. Loyalty refers to attraction to groups as groups (73). In that case, Japanese people might be attracted to the salary rather than a company.
Who am I? My answer used to be; I am student. I am an over weight person. I am a nap-lover. I am a boring person. I am a computer programmer. I am a guitar player. I am —. But since I came to the United States, a few things were added. These are; I am Japanese. I am an Asian. I am a yellow skin person. I am a black hair person. I am a black eye person. In the textbook identification refers that a part of one’s identity, part of one’s sense of self derives from one’s membership in a group or groups (75). When I wan in Japan, I did not have to mention that I am Japanese, a black hair person, a black eye person, and so forth, because generally most Japanese people have black hair and eyes technically, and of cause they are all Japanese. Americans may mention about their hair, eye and skin color because there are several colors out there, but no one would mention about his or her nationality. When certain condition is common among certain people, people would not mention it. It is seen in my nationality. When I an in Japan, I do not need to declare that I am Japanese. But when I am in Pittsburg, I may have to mention my nationality in “Who am I?” because my nationality is distinguished from others. Likewise, college students would not say that when he or she introduces his/herself in classroom. Identification is very dynamic, in certain occasion, certain identification is important, but in other occasion, it is not.
Associations are two or more groups whose memberships crosscut or overlap (80). It sounds like more purpose oriented than loyalty to groups. There are tons of groups out there to pursue same goal. The group that tries to make standard architecture of World Wide Web. The group that tries to prohibit to import any Japanese products to U.S. The group that tries to have people use condom. According to the textbook these groups are called voluntary association – a nonprimordial from solidarity that refers to reaching out beyond a primordial membership to establish common cause with others (80). But the form of family and tribe is also included in association. In other words association is that group formed with more than two people, isn’t it?
I have little knowledge about Jewish and Nazi in Second World War. I should have seen “Schindler’s List” by Steven Spielberg. Anyway a sociologist Samuel P. Oliner, a Holocaust survivor, investigated nonprimordial rescue behavior during the Holocaust. He might have performed the research objectively as a sociologist and subjectively as a Holocaust survivor. If this subject were investigated only in terms of “sociology”, the result would be that no particular reasons why non-Jewish people helped Jewish because no common factor was found among rescures and Jewish people. But his experience might give one good answer to the research that overcomes any factors or reasons. It is extensivity. In the textbook extensivity is defined that an orientation to the world that focuses outward toward others and that emphasizes both the common humanity of all persons as well as an ethical obligation to help all persons in need (77). In that case nothing was common among rescuers and Jewish, but the sense of we-ness as human could be the reason. Data does not always explain everything. “We are the one” might explain something in this case.
I do not like asking for an assistance or help. This is one of my faults on learning or accomplishing something. There are good examples. I have been using computer for a few years, and I have liked it. But computer is sometimes complicated thing, it needs some knowledge to solve problem or figure out how to do something. Fortunately my father is a sort of computer technician and programmer, he knows much about computer. However, I rarely asked him for help. Once when I had a problem on my computer’s operating system, I read tons of books for days despite asking to my father – he would give me a solution in a few minutes. In this case, although it took couple of days to solve one problem, the problem was solved. But when I was teaching a programming language by myself, I got more questions than what I learned. But I did not ask anyone about the questions I had. Eventually I gave up learning programming at that time. I have completely no idea why I avoid asking for help or assistance. But one thing I know is that I like the feeling when I accomplish something by myself. Otherwise I feel something like unfairness. I might think doing or accomplishing something all by myself is the best, and accomplishing a task with assistance is cowardly. Well, how stupid I am!
Someone said that long-lasting good relationship is based on love trust and fear. Although I have never had exciting relationship, I think that theory could be applied for a relationship between boyfriend and girlfriend. Of course love and trust is absolutely important in the relationship, but conflict between them is really necessary? If he and she wants to build drum tight relationship, they would have to wash out problems or dissatisfaction. No one likes to be heard of his or her faults, but he and she should listen and think about the problems he and she has, and tries to solve them. During the process, conflicts may happen between them. If conflict ends as conflict, the result would be easily guessed. But if he and she can talk about their problem based on conflicts, the relationship could work out. And they will be happy ever after. To say this is easy, to do this is difficult. I wish I could try out what I wrote. Anyway, in my opinion, conflict in task oriented group is important. For example, when writing a computer program with several programmers, one of programmers encountered a problem. She asked other programmers a solution to the problem. Some programmer came up with some solutions, and all of them thought his or her was the best. Then meeting was held in order to consider the solutions, but conflict was occurred among the programmers who brought solutions. Fortunately this conflict lead them to useful discussion, and eventually best part were chosen from all solution came up through the discussion. If conflict did not occur, the discussion would not be made, and they would not get best result. Like turning lemon into lemonade, taking advantage of conflict would make things better.
Attraction in the relationship between boyfriend and girlfriend, husband and wife and parent and child. Loyalty to a company. Different identification in different situation. Many types of association in a society. All based on the relationship of individuals and groups. How they interact categorize the relationship. The view of a sociologist and a Holocaust survivor gave very important aspect to the research that data could not tell. My dilemma caused by persistence and attachment prevents me from accomplishing a task. And positive conflict that makes things better. By viewing things from different aspects or categories, we might be able to see relationship that makes things together.