legislature signed a compact giving the federal government all of her claims to western lands in exchange for the
government’s pledge to extigiush all Indian titles to land within the state. But by the mid-1820’s Georgians began to
jurisdiction over its own territory.
But by now Indian removal had become entwined with the state of Georgia’s rights and the Cherokee tribes had to make
them that he would not interfere with the lawful prerogatives of the state of Georgia. Jackson saw the solution of the
states of Alabama and Georgia. The Chickisaw and Choctaw had disputes with the state of Mississippi. To ensure peace
for generations and to move to land given to them in parts of Oklahoma. Andrew Jackson was quoted as saying that this
moved across the Mississippi. Many Indians died on this journey.
“The Trails of Tears”
The term “Trails of Tears” was given to the period of ten years in which over 70,000 Indians had to give up their homes
and move to certain areas assigned to tribes in Oklahoma. The tribes were given a right to all of Oklahoma except the
Panhandle. The government promised this land to them “as long as grass shall grow and rivers run.” Unfortunately, the
land that they were given only lasted till about 1906 and then they were forced to move to other reservations.
The tribes had to walk all day long and get very little rest. All this was in order to free more land for white settlers.
the Cherokee tribes were forbade to hold any type of tribal legislature except to
ratify land cessions, and the citzens of Georgia were invited to rob and plunder the tribes in their are by making it illegal
for an Indian to bring suit against a white man.
When President Jackson began to negotiate with the Indians, he gave them a guarantee of perpetual autonomy in the
West as the strongest incentive to emigration.
end of the 1830’s. The Federal agents accomplished this by bribery, trickery,and intimidation. All of the treaties signed
by the Indians as the agreed to the terms of the removal contained guarantees that the Indians, territory should be
perpetual and that no government other than their own should be erected over them without their consent.
The land retained by the five civilized tribes was known as the Indian Territory. The 19,525,966 acres were divded among
the the five tribes. The Choctaws received 6,953,048 acres in the southeast part of Oklahoma; the Chickisaw recieved
over 4,707,903 acres west of the Choctaws reservation; the Cherokees received 4,420,068 acres in the northeast; the
received 3,079,095 acres southwest of the Cherokees; and the Seminoles purchased 365,852 acres which they purchased
from their kin, the Creeks. The Chickisaw and the Choctaw owned their lands jointly because they were so closely related
but the tribes still exercised jurisdiction over its own territory though.
This money was a considerable part of the revenue for the tribes and was used by their legislatures for the support of
had $975,258.91; the Chickisaw held $1,206,695.66;the Creek had $2,275,168.00; and the Seminole had $2,070,000.00 by the
end of 1894.
and Creeks were conservative to their customs but other tribes were receptive to any custom considered supperior to
announce to Congress that the benevolent policy of the government, steady pursued for nearly thirty years, in relation
with the removal of the indians beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy consumation.”
“The consequences of a speedy will be important to the United States, to individual states, and to the Indians
governments, and of the account the Indians. It will place a dense population in large tracts of country now occupied by
settlement of the whites it will incalcuably strengthen the Southwestern frontier and render the adjacent states strong
“It will seperate the indians from immediate contact with settlements of whites; enable them to pusue happiness in their
the area of the white settlements. Fort Gibson was brought up because it served as barracks for the army. The relocation
area for the Eastern tribes was part of other tribes land. The other tribes wanted toprotect it so they fought for it.
the Indian tribes of that region. Yet during the many years of the indian removal, there was never a alsh between the
soldiers or the tribes. An Indian was never killed by the Army. The soldiers at Fort Gibson served as a cultural buffer
between the whites and the indians.
THE CHEROKEE INDIANS
The Cherokee Indians live in many parts of the United states, but more than 100,000 live in parts of Oklahoma. Many
Cherokee have moved elsewhere. In the 1800’s, the Cherokee Nation was one of the strongest Indian tribes in the United
States. They were part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
White settlers began to protest the Cherokee’s right to own land in the early 1800′. They demanded that the Cherokee
Nation be moved west of the Mississippi to make room for white settlers. Some members of the Cherokee Nation signed
treaties with the government in 1835 agreeing to move to designated areas in Oklahoma. Most of the tribe did not want to
be relocated so they opposed the treaty. But most of the Cherokees, led by Chief John Ross, were forced to move to the
Indian Territory in the winter of 1838-1839. More than 17,000 Cherokees marched from their homes to Oklahoma. This
march was called the Trail of Tears. Many Indians died on this journey. Even though most of the Cherokee nation had
The Cherokee who went west reformed the political system that they had before. The Cherokee Nation set up schools
and churches. But all this progress was stopped in the late 1800’s. Congress voted to abolish the Cherokee Nation to
have reestablished their form of government.
The Chickisaw Indians were a tribe that lived in the southern United States. Their land included western Tenessee and
Kentucky, northwestern Alabama, and northern Mississippi before the Indian removal. They were relocated to Oklahoma
by the government in the 1830’s.
The Chickisaws lived in several small vilages with one- room log cabins. The people supported meach other by trading
The tribe was relocated to the Indian Territory in 1837 by the National Government. They also took part in the Trail of
Tears. In 1907, the Chickisaw Indian territory became part of the new state of Oklahoma. About 5,300 Chickisaw
The Choctaw tribe originates from Alabama and Mississippi. They believed in the primitive ways and hunted and farmed
to support themselves. They raised corn and other crops to trade with other Indians. They celebrate their crops with
After the Indian Removal Act was passed, the Choctaw Indians were forced to move west in order to make room for more
white settlers. They were forced to sighn the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek after fierce fighting with the United States
army. This treaty exchanched the Indians land for the assigned Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. In the early
1830’s, over 14,000 Choctaws moved to the Indian Territory in several groups. Although many groups of Indians were
gone, over 5,000 Choctaws remained in Mississippi.
the Confederacy and when the south was defeated, they were forced to give up much of their land. Their tribal
governments were dissolved by 1907, when Oklahoma became a state. It stayed that way unttil 1970 when they were
Oklahoma and nearly 4,000 still live in Mississippi as a seperate tribe.
many of the 20,000 Creek Indians live in Oklahoma. The Muskogee and the Alabama are the largest Creek tribes. Most of
them live north of the other Creek tribes. They are called the Upper Creeks. The lower Creek tribes belong to either Yuchi
or Hitichi tribes.
Creeks were forced to sign a Treaty that made them give up their land. In the 1830’s, they were forced to move to the
their belongings behind. The Creeks recieved very little payment for their lands.
laws broke up many tribal landholdings of the Creeks and they were sold to individual Indians. After this, many Creeks
were forced back into poverty.
The Seminole Indians are a tribe the used to reside in Florida in the early 1800’s. The Seminole originally belonged to the
Creek tribe. They broke apart from them and moved out of Alabama and Georgia and moved into Florida in the 1700’s
They became known as Seminoles because the name means runaways.
The Seminoles opposed the United States when they came for the Seminole’s land. The United acquired Florida in 1819,
and began urging them to sell their land to the government and to move to the Indian Territory along with the other
southeasten tribes. In 1832, some of the Seminole leaders signed a treaty and promised to relocate. The Seminole tribe
split at this time. After the Indians that agreed to move had gone the other part of the tribe fought to keep their lands.
They fled into the Florida swamps. They started the Second Seminole war (1835). This was fought over the remaining
land that the Seminole had fled to. It lasted for seven years. 1,500 American men died and the cost to the United States
and imprisoned by Jessup during peace talks under a flag of truce. Osceola died in 1838 when he still in prison. After the
war, many Seminoles moved west but still asmall group stayed hidden in the Florida swamps.