Franklin Roosevelt


Franklin Roosevelt Essay, Research Paper

Franklin Roosevelt was 32nd president of the US 1933-45, a Democrat. He served as governor of New York 1929-33. Becoming president during the Great Depression, he launched the New Deal economic and social reform program, which made him popular with the people. After the outbreak of World War II he introduced lend-lease for the supply of war materials and services to the Allies and drew up the Atlantic Charter of solidarity. Once the US had entered the war 1941, he spent much time in meetings with Allied leaders.

Born in Hyde Park, New York, of a wealthy family, Roosevelt was educated in Europe and at Harvard and Columbia universities, and became a lawyer. In 1910 he was elected to the New York state senate. He held the assistant secretaryship of the navy in Wilson s administrations 1913-21, and did much to increase the efficiency of the navy during World War I. He suffered from polio from 1921 but returned to politics, winning the governorship of New York State in 1929. When he first became president 1933, Roosevelt inculcated a new spirit of hope by his skillful “fireside chats” on the radio and his inaugural-address statement: “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” Surrounding himself by a “Brain Trust” of experts, he immediately launched his reform program. Banks were reopened, federal credit was restored, the gold standard was abandoned, and the dollar devalued. During the first hundred days of his administration, major legislation to facilitate industrial and agricultural recovery was enacted. In 1935 he introduced the Utilities Act, directed against abuses in the large holding companies, and the Social Security Act, providing for disability and retirement insurance. The presidential election 1936 was won entirely on the record of the New Deal. During 1935-36 Roosevelt was involved in a conflict over the composition of the Supreme Court, following its nullification of major New Deal measures as unconstitutional. In 1938 he introduced measures for farm relief and the improvement of working conditions. . In spite of strong isolationist opposition, he broke a long-standing precedent in running for a third term; he was reelected 1940.

Franklin Roosevelt was a well like man by almost all of the country. He was even considered by many as a god. Much of this was in his charisma that he had, but he also surrounded himself with bright, intelligent people. Here is a listing of the members of the cabinet who were under Roosevelt:

Secretary of State: Cordell Hull (1933-44); Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. (1944-45). Secretary of the Treasury: William H. Woodin (1933-34); Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (1934-45). Secretary of War: George H. Dern (1933-36); Harry H. Woodring (1937-40); Henry L. Stimson (1940-45). Attorney General: Homer S. Cummings (1933-39); Frank Murphy (1939-40); Robert H. Jackson (1940-41); Francis B. Biddle (1941-45). Postmaster General: James A. Farley (1933-40); Frank C. Walker (1940-45). Secretary of the Navy: Claude A. Swanson (1933-39); Charles Edison (1940); Frank Knox (1940-44); James V. Forrestal (1944-45) Secretary of the Interior: Harold L. Ickes. Secretary of Agriculture: Henry A. Wallace (1933-40); Claude R. Wickard (1940-45). Secretary of Commerce: Daniel C. Roper (1933-38); Harry L. Hopkins (1939-40); Jesse H. Jones (1940-45); Henry A. Wallace (1945).

a. here is a list of programs that were enacted

i. WPA

ii. AAA

iii. CCC

iv. TVA

v. SEC

vi. FDIC

vii. NRA

viii. NIRA

ix. PWA

There were several causes of the Great Depression. The Dust Bowl was a main cause even though the farmers were already in a depression . Speculation of what might happen was also a main cause, and then the stock market crash. And also only a few people had basically all the money, and companies had too many products.

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