Dietary and activity habits were self evaluated over three days (one week day and a weekend). Analysis of 3-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except Retinol Eq. which was *66% of RDA,Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Folate, Iron, and Phosphorous were *300% of the RDA.Introduction
Diet significantly influences athletic performance. An adequate diet, in terms of quantity and quality, before, during and after training and compe-tition will maximize performance. In the optimum diet for most sports, carbohydrate is likely to contribute about 60-70% of total energy intake and protein about 12%, with the remainder coming from fat.
The realization that the performance of muscular exercise is influenced by the preceding diet is not new. Christensen and Hansen (1939) showed that endurance capacity in prolonged work was enhanced if a diet high in carbohydrate was consumed in the days prior to exercise, and was reduced by consumption of a low carbohydrate diet. (Maughan et al., 1996)
Diet composition and the performance of high-intensity Vitamin supplements are not necessary for athletes eating an adequate diet in respect of quality and quantity. Of the minerals and elements essential for health, particular attention should be paid to iron and calcium status in those individuals who may be at risk.
Dietary and activity habits were self evaluated for one week day and one weekend.
The observations were made throughout each day. All foods consumed and activity partaken was recorded onto a diet and activity chart.
The data was then entered into the DietMaster program and processed.
Williams & Devlin (1992)
Analysis of 3-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements which indicates undernutrition.
Undernutrition is a condition in which there is not enough food energy as measured in calories or kilojoules. This usually means that not enough total food is consumed. The main characteristics are loss of body weight and wasting of body fat and later muscle.
This result is inaccurate and may be due to inadequate measurements of food weight and overemphasize of activity data entered into the diet master program.
Carbohydrate intake was slightly less than desired and a greater percent was derived from sugars than considered necessary. This was probably due to the exceeding amount of alcohol consumed. (Microsoft Encarta 2000, 1993-1999)
Ethyl alcohol is the only drug that provides calories, although meals of nonalcoholic foods have a gentle sedative effect. The acute effects of a large intake of alcohol are well known. The many complications of chronically high intakes of alcohol include gastric ulcer, pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, convulsions, delirium tremens,
hypertension, several varieties of malnutrition. (Multimedia Encyclopaedia
Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except Retinol Eq.
Malnutrition covers at least 25 different deficiency diseases resulting from lack of one of the essential nutrients: protein, vitamins, essential fats, or nutrient elements. Kwashiorkor, rickets, and iron-deficiency anemia are examples of the results of malnutrition.
The average daily intake for: Retinol Eq. was 45.93% of the RNI.
A fat-soluble compound, vitamin A (retinol) is found in animal foods, especially in liver of land animals or fish, where it is stored and concentrated. Most of the world’s population, however, derive most or all of their vitamin A from plant foods, many of which contain the yellow-orange pigment carotene. A deficiency in retinol can lead to night blindness. . (McArdle, Katch & Katch, 1996)
There is an error in the RNI breakdown report where Vitamin D is Shown as 0% of RNI when the desired amount is N/A. The natural source of vitamin D is from the action of short-wave ultraviolet light from the Sun on a derivative of cholesterol in the skin. Some Vitamin D was also obtained from the food.
Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances.
Analysis of the diet showed that Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Folate, Iron,
and Phosphorous were *300% of the RNI.
Nutrients taken in amounts above the RDA can be toxic. The level at which the nutrient may exert toxic effects varies, and for some nutrients, such as vitamins A and D, iron, fluoride, selenium, and iodine, the level is much lower than for others. Among the vitamins, the rule that fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic but water-soluble vitamins are not cannot be relied upon because vitamin B6 (water-soluble) has been found to cause peripheral neuropathy in doses at least 200 times the RDA, while no consistent side effect of large intakes of fat-soluble vitamin E has been shown. Iron toxicity may be acute or chronic. Acute toxicity occurs if a number of sugar-coated iron tablets are accidentally swallowed; it can be fatal. Chronic iron intoxication occurs in persons who regularly consume acidic alcoholic drinks brewed in unlined iron vessels. (Microsoft Encarta 2000, 1993-1999)
Multivitamin supplements are often taken to ensure that the RDA of nutrients is provided.
Multivitamin tablets are, in theory, harmless, though usually unnecessary. Most multivitamin preparations do not contain all 13 true vitamins, and the doses of vitamins they do contain usually deviate far from their RDAs. Megadoses of vitamins carry the risk of toxic effects, especially for vitamins A, D, and B6, and possibly for some of the other vitamins. (Multimedia Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1994-1998)
From the analysis of these results it is not strict to say that the energy intake is insufficient or the diet is inadequate in some nutrients. This is simply because of the inaccuracy of the given data and the duration of the data collection. For more precise results the data should be taken over at least 7 days and all foods consumed should be weighed and accurately recorded.
Khoo, C. S; Rawson, N.E; Robinson, M.L; Stevenson, R. J. (1987) Nutrient Intake and Eating Habits of Triathletes. Annals of Sports Medicine, 3(2), 144-150.
Microsoft Encarta 2000 (1993-1999)
Multimedia Encyclopaedia Britannica (1994-1998)
Williams, C; Devlin, J. T. (1992) Foods, Nutrition and Sports Performance. Chapman & Hall: London.
Wootton, S. (1989) Nutrition For Sport. London, UK: Simon & Schuster.