Children's journalism in this country has a rich history. Before the revolution, mainly in St. Petersburg and Moscow, issued nearly three hundred children's and youth magazines. Some of them went out for decades, while others ceased to exist in the first book. First of all, this was due to the fact that publishers do not have sufficient funds, and at times appeared the magazine does not find its subscribers on a variety of reasons, but mostly because the alternative is the deterioration of already published and favorite readers.
«Friend of children», «Children's Museum», «Sobesednik», «Relax», «Baby». «Nursery», «Igrushechka», «A gift for children», «Malutka», «Case and fun», «path», «Golden Childhood», «Snowdrop», «sun». Each of these and many other magazines had their focus, their themes and structure. Unfortunately, in the study of children's pre-revolutionary journalism we have done very little, did not disclose the contents of journals in any bibliographical work, and in connection with the many interesting texts have remained only on the pages of periodicals. However, recently there appeared the publication of children's magazines last century, but until this random phenomenon.
The purpose of the proposed works - to trace the history of journalism from the children's conception and its tendency to influence the development of the child, depending on the era, the political system, ideology of society. Therefore, the task of lighting topics will include the following points: In addition to descriptions of periodicals for children, we will trace the ideology of the publications, their content, purpose, will be traced the fate of the people associated with journalism for children.
The work is of interest to a broad audience: students of philological departments, cultural workers, the press, journalists, psychologists, as well as for parents, for whom the important role of journalism in the upbringing of their children.
1. History of child Journalism
Until the middle of XVII century children's literature does not exist. In fact, the first book written specifically for children, was a book «The World in Pictures» Jan Amos Comenius. The greatest teacher and school reformer, was the ancestor of the literature relevant to understanding children.
The first children's magazine in the world has become a «Leptsigsky weekly flyer» (1772-1774), issued in Germany. After three years, a special children's periodical - «Children's reading for the hearts and minds» - was to go to Russia in Moscow.
Journal of Russian educator N. Novikova «Children's reading for the hearts and minds» initiated domestic publications for young readers. He went out in the form of weekly applications of «Moscow statements» from 1785 to 1789. The publication journal N. Novikov seen, above all, an opportunity to implement its education and outreach ideas. Children's Magazine, in the opinion of the editor, was a «for the hearts and minds», to raise good citizens, from an early age to explain to young readers with the laws of virtue. It should be the idea of humanity, of true nobility, honesty, generosity. The publication was encyclopedic in nature: in its pages were printed papers, talks about the phenomena of nature stories, fables, comedy, jokes. According to founder, the magazine was to «provide for the heart and mind to cultivate good citizens». I. Novikov also believed that in the State of all «make a handy, if possible degree of education to reach its perfection». To this end, it took its publication. Educational functions periodicals determine its nature.
Good taste and literary talent of the staff (one of the editors was N. Karamzin, published in «Children's reading for the hearts and minds» first novel «Eugene and Julia») affected by the selection of translated literature. Readers acquainted with the works of Voltaire, Lesinga, Thomson and many others. Journal Novikov stood the test of time. «Net, the moral rules laid down for the fun of the time language, quietly entered the soul of the readers, especially readers, and little by little gave an entirely different flavor to a society», - noted in one of the entries in 1849. S. Aksakov in his memoirs, too, is drawn to the magazine Novikov: «As a child my mind (after getting acquainted with this magazine) has done a coup, and I opened a new world ... Many phenomena in nature, which I looked pointless, though curiously, were for me the meaning, importance and become more interesting ... »60 years after the appearance of« Children's reading »V. Belinsky exclaimed:« Poor children! We were happy for you: we had the «Children's reading» Novikov».
For «Children's reading for the heart and mind» (1785-1789) was followed by other such publications, and for nearly a century, their typology, has not undergone substantive changes. The magazine has historically corresponded to those tasks to be performed at all in «child reading». First of all, it was designed to educate the young generation.
Magazine N. Novikova elicited imitation, and the beginning of the XIX century periodicals for the audience were called out one after the other. «Friend of youth and of all years» Nevzorova M. (1807-1815), and similar in content «other children» Nikolai Ilyin (1809), «A new children's reading» S. Glinka (1821-1824).
2. Beginning of a new era in the Children's journalism. JOURNALS «Hedgehog» and «Chizh»
In 20-30-years in our country has a developed network of children's newspapers and magazines, to whom the challenge is not having analogues in world practice dormitory - to shape a new world outlook of Soviet-type person, effectively influence the future development of the individual builders society of social justice.
In 1922 the Pioneer Organization is created. From this time begins the era of the pioneering children's magazines, some are not included. Creators magazine looked at the child, especially as the future builders of communism, sought to inculcate loyalty to the ideas of children's ruling party and the Communist leadership.
In 1922 Moscow and 1923. in St. Petersburg went out two single-magazine «Young Friends» and «Drum», devoted to organizational matters pioneer movement. It was the first Soviet socio-political magazine for children. They have existed for about a year, the main theme - Institutional pioneer movement.
Numerous periodicals of that time - «Young Spartacus», «Leninskiye sparks», «Pioneer», «Drum», «New Robinzon», «The friendly guys» and many others - to fulfill grand job with the glow, which is akin to only the era of great revolutionary transformations.
Nevertheless, be competitive at the Leningrad magazines «Hedgehog" (1928 - 1935) and «Chizh» (1930-1941) was not in a position none of the children's periodical years. Moreover, the writer Nikolai Чуковский even argued that «never in Russia, either before or after, there was no such genuinely funny, genuinely literary, childlike mischievous children's magazines»
Authors of the future «Chizhey» and «hedgehogs» was formed around a children's department of state publishing houses (GIZ) in Leningrad. It was established in 1924 at the initiative of KI Chukovsky. The official had been his head SN Gusin - people «clean devoid of humor and literary talents» 5, and the unofficial «Lord» (principal consultant) was S. J. Marshak, which by the end of the 20's here was focused on the unique composition constellation of writers and artists. In its early years, the department was less like a government agency, but rather resembled a literary studio, which produced, approved and implemented the principles of the new literature for children; chronicler era always remember the joyful atmosphere of creativity, in tsarivshuyu «Academy Marshak». Any visitor to the fifth floor of the House of Books on Nevsky Prospect, where it is housed, could become a witness, and often a party unexpectedly comical scenes, funny jokes, and sometimes even a presentation. In the «Academia» neumolkaemo sounded improvised jokes, parodies, epigrams, born brilliant and audacious vision. «The entire fifth floor every day and during all office hours shake one's sides. Some visitors to the Division of Child weakened with laughter, that, ending his affairs, went on staircases, holding his hands over the wall like a drunken man », 6 - recalled officer drafted N. Чуковский. Ironically, such an atmosphere, not only does not impede the cause, who served as allies Marshak, and conversely, increased employment rates of all the staff cheerful shop. Day by day by exercising their imagination, imagination and wit, writers and artists maintained a high creative energy, obtaining a unique professional qualities necessary for creators of fun children's book.
By this time also and the idea of creating a new «monthly» (abbreviated - «Hedgehog»). The magazine was aimed at an audience of secondary school age - the pioneers. To cooperate in the «Ezhe» Marshak drew writers represent the author's group, the journal «Vorobey» (in the last year of publication - «New Robinzon»), go forth with the 1923-1925 biennium. in Petrograd. The pages «Sparrow» and «New Robinson» first saw the light many works Zhitkova B., V. Bianchi, M. Ilyina, E. Schwartz, N. Oleinikova, E. Vereisky. The most daring and successful of the numerous «selective» Marshak experiments, the results of which will almost always be the opening of the new gifted authors, was the invitation to the child's experience of office (and then - in the magazines) of young leaders, but now disgraced literary group «OBERIU» - D. Harms , A. Vvedensky, N. Zabolotskaya. Patriarch of children's literature accurately captured in «recondite» Poetry «oberiutov», continued his work in the tradition of V. Khlebnikov, A. Tufanova quality that can enrich the literature for children: the sincerity of feelings, fresh rhythms, the tendency to bizarre word, innovative thinking. Soon «oberiuty» truly become a leading force in children's literature.
Participation in oberiutov-poets «Chizhe» and «Ezhe», of course, casts a shadow on the magazines themselves, causing a suspicious attitude towards them, part ideology. They just looked at the clearance. The campaign against them nachalasv «year of the great breakthrough» - a match is unlikely to need in the comments - when there razgromnye article condemning the game poetry and fairy tales (sadly famous «Combating chukovschinoy»). Publishers have tried to «produce absurd, horrific things like« First »D. Harms, who neither formal nor, even more so in its content, not in any way acceptable».
And finally to all the above, I would like to add that due to the rapid development of technological progress, with the advent and widespread implementation in all aspects of computer network and Internet, there are many children's Web journals, colorfully decorated with a virtual Game start: «Karapuz», «Ladushki», «Barbie», «Vigny-Pooh», «Nahalenok», «A visit from Cinderella», «Mysterious world» and so on.
Unfortunately, children with access to the Internet, yet very little. A pity, the combination of the printed word and kompternyh achievement is a phenomenon unique in the field of educational and cognitive child. Along with the development of computer skills, the child simultaneously learns a global scale: while reading a literary work and engage in educational quiz, to correspond with friends, browse a wide range of graphic images (pictures of beautiful places of the planet, animals, plants), to raise as their own language, and an additional - English, mainly in the Internet-e, to play the game, develop logical thinking - and all this at once!
Today, more and more often hear voices disturbing that the press before the onslaught of retreats of all kinds of video, the TV, computer. But we tend to look to the future with optimism. A truly talented word artist, publicist, calls the reader to meditation and creativity, will find resonance in the hearts of readers-contemporaries. Do not remain indifferent to it, and readers for generations to come. Authors of children's creative destiny magazines «Chizh» and «Hedgehog» - to the brightest example.
Alexandrov A. Among cheerful «Chizhey» lustige «hedgehogs» / Sat.: About literature for children .- Vol. 18.-L., 2006.-S. 153-154.
Alekseeva MI Soviet children's Journalism 20-ies., M. University, 2005