Chapter 8 Outline 10Th Grade


Chapter 8 Outline (10Th Grade) Essay, Research Paper

Biology Chapter 8 Outline


X Chromosome: one of the chromosomes that determine a sex; sex chromosomes

Y Chromosome: one of the chromosomes that determine sex,

Sex chromosome

Sex chromosomes: because the two chromosomes differ between the sexes, we call them sex chromosomes.

Autosomes: chromosomes not related to an organism’s sex.


Sex-linked characteristic: trait whose genes are carried on the X chromosome.


Nondisjunction: failure of homologs to segregate during meiosis.

Chromosome theory of heredity: the theory that genes are located on chromosomes.


Gene linkage: the genes that occur on the same chromosome (linked)


Crossing-over: exchange of segments of chromosomal material between two strands of a tetrad; occurs during prophase of meiosis.

Recombination gametes: gametes with a set of linked genes different than that found in the parent.

Genetic map: the location of genes on a chromosome.


Continuous variation: the presence of many multiple length offspring.

Multiple genes: three or more different alleles controlling a trait.


Modifier genes: genes that affect the expression of other alleles.

Genetic counseling: type of counseling in which parents can be advised of their chances of having offspring with a hereditary disease.


Lethal gene: an allele that causes death.


Ultrasonography: a technique used to determine the position and anatomy of a fetus.

Fetoscopy: allows direct observation of the fetus and surrounding tissues.

Endoscope: device that allows a fetus to be viewed while it is still in the uterus.

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