Borders Coursework Essay, Research Paper

Borders Coursework 1)Investigate the different patterns of development

Order of squares going down 1 + 3 + 1 = 5 1 + 3 + 5 + 3 + 1 = 13

New additions. In each case 2 has been added. 1 + 3 +5 7 + 5 + 3 + 1 = 25

Like the previous pattern there are

Additions with 2 being added on. For the next pattern I predict that the total number of squares will be 41, using the following pattern: 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 7 + 5 + 3 + 1 = 41 I am now going to check to test my prediction. Number of squares = 25 + 16 = 41 My prediction was correct. As well as finding a correct method of finding the next pattern I noticed that to find the number of dark squares on the next pattern you use the total number for the previous pattern.

PatternDark squaresWhite squares

1141 + 4 = 5

2585 + 8 = 13

3131213 + 12 = 25

4251625 + 16 = 41

WHY? This happens because you are simply adding on to this. This could be a useful fact in searching for a formula. I am now going to investigate any differences between the totals.

First of all I will need to find some more totals, as the amount I have will not be conclusive. To find these without drawing any more diagrams I will use my knowledge of the structure (e.g. 1 + 3 + 1). New orders

PatternPrevious totalNew additionsNew totals

54111 + 9 = 2061 (20 + 41 = 61)

66113 + 11 =2485 (61 + 24 =85)

78515 + 13 = 28113

811317 + 15 =32145

914519 + 17 = 36181

1018121 + 19 =40221

(These are white squares) Differences

Total5 13 25 41 61 85 113 145 181 221

1st difference 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

2nd difference 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

This shows a main difference of 4. I think this will influence the formula. I think this will mainly be in the form of a multiple of 4.

The first formula I will try to find is the formula for the surrounding white squares. Trying for a formula – white squares. In each case I have observed that if you multiply the pattern number by 4 it gives you the amount of white squares.

E.g.

Pattern

1x 4 = 4 white squares

2x 4 = 8 white squares

3x 4 = 12 white squares

This goes on & by using this method you can find the amount of white squares as long as you have the pattern number. I have also noticed that the new addition under the new orders table gives the amount of white squares. This is also true for the 1st difference. Formula for white squares Throughout my investigation I will use the following symbols for the formula’s, these will not change.

N = pattern number

D = dark squares

W = white squares I think the formula is simply 4 x the pattern number or 4N. The following is a check to see if my formula is correct. 4N = number of white squares

N = 10

4 x 10 = 40

This is the correct amount of white squares; I know this because of the table of new orders gives me this answer. Finding a formula for the dark squares

I am now searching for a formula for the dark squares.

I will analyse the information of the tables of new orders & differences find a formula for the amount of dark squares. Once again I will use the same letters for the pattern number etc.

I have found that the number of dark squares equals the total for the previous squares. To see this you can look on the bottom of page 1.

I have decided to draw a new table similar to that of the table of differences on page 2 to help me find the progression of dark squares.

PatternTotal squaresDark squaresWhite squares

1514

21358

3251312

4412516

5614120

6856124

71138528

814511332

918114536

1022118140

There are only three important columns in this table those are the first three. The column of white squares is only there because it shows how I got the amount of total squares. The differences between the dark & total number of squares once again go up in 4.

I think to find a formula for the dark squares you can find a possible formula to find the amount of total number of squares & then minus the formula for the white squares.

E.g.

Total number of squares – 4N = number of dark squares

Adding to my list of algebraic letters I will add the letter T.

N = pattern number

D = dark squares

W = white squares

T = total number of squares I am now going to complete a table to show the development of the pattern number (N) against the total number of squares (T).

NT

15+ 4

213+ 11

325+ 22

441+37

561+56

685+79

7113+

8145+

9181+

10221+