15th century artists
commissioned by the elites to paint chapels etc (e.g. St. Peter?s chapel) ?
usually given specific subject, although given free reign occasionally.? Some paid per figure on the canvas. ?
patron?s desire, needs, wealth, status as well as the artist?s talents and
Thus ? see the art work as a deposit
This form of patronage not necessarily
financially based relationship.? In
but independent artists whose work digressed from regime needs / desires /
ideology were imprisoned, exiled or killed ?
More explicit way of patronage ? Nazis
In Italy an art competition was won by
included on handout) ?
Cultural revolutions ? way of
cleansing enemies at home ? again highlights power of art ?
Example: sculptor George Kolbe ? 1930
preoccupation pure human form.? Intended
as a juxtaposition against degenerate art ? art of Jews, the weak.? The art hated by the working class and
conservative bourgeoisie. ?
Above sculptures do not reflect a
between artist and patron (government).?
Nazis use degenerate art to channel
embody.? Aesthetic backing to
unequivocally value based judgments. ?
We see art as influencing social
background.? Early on in career Stalin
trying to be seen as the inheritor of Lenin?s legacy. ?
Socialist realism ? continual
relationships. AUTONOMOUS ART ?
called civilized people? ?
Rousseau ? art under despotism
reflected and reinforced immoral power of the state ?
Implies need for autonomous art ? link
to Willi Baumeister ?art has progressed along the path from dependence to
independence, from the commission which is given to personal
responsibility.? The free autonomous
artist receives his commission from himself? ?
So, does autonomous art show a social
relationship?? Not a traditional concept
enforced patronage highlights a lack of Nazi or Soviet type social
relationship? CONCLUSIONS ?
Patronage: enforced, financial,
government based ? social relationship pressurizing artist into his works ?
does not lessen value of the art, but must be seen from different perspective ?
Reinforcement of power of the image ?
Autonomous art free of a deposit of a