Urbanisation

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Urbanisation Essay, Research Paper

Why has there been such an

accelerated rate of urbanizationin Mexico?Since WW2 there

has been a phenomenal amount of urbanization, industrialization and population

growth in Mexico. This trend is not peculiar to Mexico. It has been observed in

many other developing countries. It is estimated that there will be 6000

million people on earth by the year 2000.It is also thought that there may be

as many as half of these living in built up areas of at least 5000 people. ??????????????? Urbanization is the process where people

leave rural (country ) areas to move into towns and cities. In the 1000 years

before 1950 this was a gradual trend. However, in the second fifty years of

this century the number added to the urban population has greatly accelerated. ??????????????? Throughout

Latin America towns are increasing in population at a rate of 2.5 to 10per cent

each year. Urban Facilities, especially housing, cannot keep pace, therefore

the numbers of people in makeshift squatter settlements is increasing at an

even greater rate. The type of shanty settlement described in Mexico City is

now a major urban form in many towns and cities in developing countries. Two factors have caused the

urban population explosion.??????????? It is not clear which of the two factors, high fertility or rural-to-urban

migration is more responsible for urban growth in Latin America. A United

Nations report indicated that Venezuela?s urban growth in the 1941-50 period

was 29per cent natural increase and 71per cent migration to cities. The same

study showed that the population growth of Mexico?s cities was due to 58per

cent natural increase and 42per cent migration. A more recent investigation

(1967) showed growth of cities in Chile, Venezuela and Mexico was due mainly to

the natural increase.Migration??????????????? Researchers

argue about the detail of reasons why people migrate and why they settle in a

particular place, but there seems to be little doubt that the basic reason is employment . ??????????????? Until

recently Mexico has shown an impressive economic growth, with related

employment opportunities. However, the population growth has been even more

rapid ( between 800 000 and 900 000 new workers come into the labour market

each year ). In 1950 there were 2.3million landless laborers and in the 1960s

there were 3million. Many of these left to seek work in urban places.

Others? migrated across the border into

the USA, either legally or illegally. In recent years the us authorities have

made this source of employment more and more difficult. ??????????????? The

Director of Planning in Mexico City (1981) believes that 27 to 30 per cent of

the population is in fact immigrant and that up to a 1000 a day are still

coming in. He thinks Mexico City may well be the most Striking example of

accelerated urbanization. Many other cities in Mexico exhibit rapid growth but

it is Mexico City that has shown the extraordinary increase.Summary of Mexico?s economic and social

problems·

Half of the population is under 15

years of age. ·

Each year 800 000 to 900 000

additional workers come into the labor market. ·

Unemployment is around 20 per cent. ·

Underemployment is up to about 30 per

cent. ·

Inflation has risen from 30 per cent

in 1981 to 100 per cent in 1982. ·

Rapid urbanization, partly due to the

shortage of cropland ·

Importing food. Social structure:3 per cent very rich;

about 65 per cent very poor; with a growing demand for consumer goods. ??????????????? ??

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