The Development of synthetic organs//Research is being done on developing new ways to make semi-syntheic organs or Neo-organs, that will be useful in the treatment of patients requiring transplants or reconstructive surgery. Currently, hospitals are using similar technology in producing skin, cartiledge, bone, ligament, and tendon tissues.//Presently, bone morphogenic proteins or BMP s are being produced and are being used to inject into a bone fracture. These BMP s were discovered in 1965, when Marshall R. Urist of the University of California did experiments where he would inject dogs with leg fractures with powdered bone. The powdered bone would lead to significant healing of the fractures. Creative Biomolecules, a research company in Hopkinton, Mass. Has completed experiments where BMP-7 has successfully been proven to aid in the healing of bone fractures. This experiment compared patients who were given injections of the BMP s and patients with bone fragments taken from other parts of the body to graft to the fracture, used as a basis for the growth of new bone cells. The results showed that both groups had recovered to an equal extent.//In order for the growth of whole organs to be possible it is necessary to also develop a way for the organs to simultaneously grow blood vessels that will supply the organ with oxygen. Without such blood vessels the organs will die. Judah Folkman, of Harvard Medical School s Children s Hospital, has through cancer research shown that the human body can make new blood vessels, it is just a matter of when to promote the body s production of them, and when to halt the process.//Michael J. Yaszemski, of the Mayo Clinic, Alan W. Yasko of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and AntonioG. Mikos of the Rice University have been working on making injectable polymers that can be molded and will set, in a hard form in approxiamtely fifteen minutes. The polymers act as a three dimensional matrix on, and through which cartiledge can form and grow. After so many weeks they degrade, similar to dissolvable sutures, leaving only a pure, natural cartiledge form. This method of surgery illeviates the need for elaborate invasion of the body, minimizing scar tissue, and leaving the patients own skin to continue growing atop of the new organ.//Another proposed method of organ generation/regeneration is where the body s own cells are used. A growth factor is injected into the wound, this includes growth hormones and the instructions for the body s own cells to move into the wound and to turn into the correct type of cell and to begin reproducing. As stated before, the exact time for commencement and conclusion is what is what remains a mystery. The technology used in transdermal patches, controlled drug delivery technology is what scientists believe to be partly the starting point for solving this mystery. Jeffrey F. Bonadio, of Selective Genetics in San Diego, Steven A. Goldstein and co-workers propose a different method: Genes would be injected into the wound site that would encode the growth factors previously mentioned. The body s cells would use DNA from the genes as an instruction booklet, eventually the DNA would decompose because it is not originally part of the cell, thus causing the production to stop. Perhaps, another point to aid in the mystery of how to start and stop the production.