The Beginning Of Time
around The Big Bang.
The second is the Steady State Theory.
A later hypothesis was created to replace the common belief that the universe was
been shifted closer to red) and bodies moving towards an observer to be “blue-shifted”
The expansion was traced backwards through time to discover that all the galaxies were
created from the same point. It was later believed that all matter spawn from that “center
of the universe” discovered by Hubble. Matter would collect outside this singularity and
beginning or end. The theory meant that scientist had to abandon the laws of conservation
certain point but more and more evidence gathered against the Steady State Theory,
leading to many modifications to it. Until finally the theory was dropped completely with
the discovery of the smooth microwave background radiation (radiation so ancient it had
shifted right out of the visible spectrum into microwave radiation). A smooth background
to the universe suggested that it was hot and uniform – the ideal conditions for the Big
explosion all the materials in the universe today (matter, energy and even time) were
expelled into a vacuum about 12 billion years ago. The combined mass of the universe was
interpolated to a point of zero volume (therefore infinite density). It is impossible to guess
what the universe would physically be like because the density of the universe cannot be
plugged into any physical equation.
bang. At this moment the universe is filled with a sea of various exotic particles along with
electrons, photons, and neutrinos (and their respectable anti-particles). At this time there
are also a small number of protons and neutrons. The protons and neutrons are
participating in sub-atomic reactions. The two most important of these reactions are:
Antineutrino + Proton —-* Positron (anti-electron) + Neutron
Neutrino + Neutron —-* Electron + Proton In effect the protons are becoming
apart immediately after coming together.
As the universe expands, and loses energy the electrons and positrons begin to collide,
effectively annihilating one another, leaving only energy in the form of photons and
neutrinos. Appropriately fourteen seconds after the Big Bang simple atoms are formed like
has sufficiently cooled to allow formations of helium and other light elements.
As it is proven by the cosmic background radiation, the universe was uniformly smooth. A
change had to have occurred, otherwise no celestial objects would have formed and as the
mind, but, at this point the largest particle is a helium atom, which due to it’s small size,
has very little of a gravitational pull. The only respectable theory is the “cosmic string
made up of knots in seven or eight dimensional ’strings’. These strings are really massive
(each meter of string would weigh 1021 kg). This would require that the universe was not
a complete vacuum prior to the Big Bang because space itself would be make up of
cosmic strings. The cosmic strings while being extremely heavy are also very tight, so tight
that if a string were not either a circle (connect to itself in a loop) or of infinite length, it
would pull itself together into nothing. A string can also disconnect and reattach with
other strings that are intersecting it. Now a universe can be pictured with an infinite
number of ‘cosmic strings’ interacting with each other even before the Big Bang. After the
material was dispersed via the Big Bang, particles were attracted to the cosmic strings
(mainly loops, since the mass would be more centralized). These cosmic string loops,
could be the basis for the formation of a galaxy. The small particles would be attracted by
the strong gravitational field of the loops, thus creating a hub for the creation of a galaxy.
After some years all the loops would decay because of their strong emission of
gravitational radiation leaving enough collected matter to form a fully functioning galaxy
an orbital cloud of the young star while the lighter elements close in on the core. This
increase in gravity causes a further increase in pressure, until the center of the star has the
converts hydrogen into helium at an alarming rate. A star is born.
stars. The clouds of dust collect the same way in planet except the temperatures don’t
By means of commonly accepted theories, the origin of the universe from the Big Bang to
the formation of a planet, has been successfully detailed. Thanks to new technology
technology, more has been learned about our would than ever imagined possible.
Although all the advances assumed feasible have put to use will still are far from knowing
theories, but most ended up being dead wrong. We cannot assume that all of our current
theories are correct because although we may know more, we will never know all.
Hawking, S. W. (1988). A Brief History Of Time. New York:
Scientific Americal Library.
Wienberg, Steven. (1977). The First Three Minutes. New York: Basic Books, Inc.