standing up but not while they were sitting at the lunch counter. The
The next morning they showed up again accompanied by twenty five fellow
students. By the next week their sit down had been repeated in fourteen
Montgomery, Alabama, 1,000 blacks silently marched into the first capital
colleges walked through the streets of Orangeburg, South Carolina with
placards that exhibited phrases like ?We Want Liberty? and ?Segregation
fifty different cities across America had been desegregated.
the Kennedy legacy and the support of the nation succeeded in passing the
bill. The bill passed 71 to 19, four more votes than required.
By early 1965 a new black leader had arose, whose name was
Malcolm X. His gospel was hatred and his motto was; ?If ballots won?t
a bright Sunday in a ballroom in Manhattan in full view of 400 blacks
Malcolm was murdered. Three men casually walked down the aisle; and
from eight feet opened fire with sawed-off double barreled shotguns.
Malcolm was killed by a pair of point blank range shots to the chest.
On March 12, 1965, U.S. Highway 80 was blocked by sixty state
troopers who stood in a wall three deep 400 yards past the Edmund Pettus
Bridge, which crosses the Alabama river. When black marchers came
within 100 yards the troopers were ordered to put on their gas masks. At
twenty five yards the marchers stopped. Seconds later the command
?troopers forward? was barked. The troopers moved in a solid wall
pushing back the front marchers. At 75 yards the troopers were joined by
posse men and deputies with tear gas canisters, in seconds the road was
responded with such fury. Over 15,000 thousand people marched in five
different cities across the country.
On Sunday, March 21, 1965 a crowd of 3,400 marchers lead by two
departed from Selma on their four day march to Montgomery. They were
goal of the march was to serve the governor with a petition protesting
reneged and blandly told them ?the capitol is closed today.?
By August of 1965 riots began to erupt in Los Angeles. At the end
of one week there were 27 dead, almost 600 injured, 1,700 arrested, and
over $100 million dollars worth of property damage. The riots were
finally stopped when 5,000 national guardsmen were called in from around
on the irritation of the urban blacks because of their isolation and
refusing to desegregate schools. They decided to take action and cut off
all federal funding to six more districts bringing the total to 37 southern
schools without funding. Though losing funding many schools were still
segregating students. In Louisiana only 1 in 28 black students attended
school with whites, 1 in 31 in Mississippi, and only 1 in 42 in Alabama.
The Los Angeles ghetto of Watts plunged into anarchy in 1965 after
a black man named Marquette Frye was arrested for drunk driving. After
six days of rioting ended a total of 35 were dead, 900 were injured, and
there was millions of dollars worth of property damage. A Cleveland
water to a black man. In Newark, New Jersey some of the most violent
race riots broke out after a black cab driver was killed by white
policemen. At the end of the week there were 21 dead, over 1,000 injured,
and at least 1,600 arrested. Property damage was once again in the high
millions. By 1967 forty five were dead and property damage was up to
almost one billion dollars. During the summer of 1967 riots intensified in
Detroit. By the end of one week 41 were dead, 350 injured, 3,800
arrested, 5,000 homeless (mostly blacks), 1,300 buildings completely
destroyed, and 2,700 businesses ransacked. Property damage reached an
astonishing $500 million dollars.
stood on a second story balcony discussing the next week?s march on
Washington with his colleagues. Suddenly a single shot broke the silence
torn through his neck. In response to the shot some thirty Memphis police
converged on the building. Somehow, possibly on purpose, all thirty
policemen missed the shooter. The weapon used to kill King was a scope-
sighted 30.06 cal. Remington pump rifle. The range from which the shot
scores of cities around the country.
The United States had a simple yet bloody goal in Vietnam, to keep
the communists from acquiring South Vietnam. The U.S. had three main
dispatch to South Vietnam of U.S. operational personnel; 2) Reconnaissance missions along the border of North and South Vietnam; 3)
Bomber strikes at Communist guerrilla bases. The U.S. expected to win
the war with the Viet Cong within three years with high but acceptable
devastating 58,148 dead.
York took place. It is commonly known as ?Woodstock.? Over 400,000
people showed up at Woodstock, most between the ages of 16 and 30.
Many were said to be attracted by the all-star cast of top rock artists
freak out, a ?monstrous Dionysian revel,? where a group of drugies got
together to drop acid and groove to hours of ?amplified cacophony.?
In reality the impact Woodstock had on the youth culture can hardly be
In closing,the 60?s was in one perspective, a decade of peace and
love, but in another perspective a decade of war and struggle.