Introduction To The Project and Stratford This project was an extensive look at the way tourists affected the small Warwickshire town of Stratford, the infamous birthplace of Shakespeare. It just happens to draw millions of tourists a year.The History and Economy Of Stratford. The town of Stratford lies in the heart of England, around one hour south-west of Birmingham. ‘More than 75 per cent of the town’s work-force is employed in service industries’ 2 and virtually all of the town is either directly or indirectly dependent on tourism for employment. The town as a place has wide, pleasant streets and numerous half-timbered Tudor houses, including the one in Henley Street where Shakespeare was born. Nearby at Shottery is the cottage of his wife, Anne Hathaway. The Shakespeare centre which includes a library and art gallery, is near Shakespeare’s birthplace, and on the river is the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, built in 1932, where his plays are performed including an annual festival that originated in 1769. The playwright’s grave is in the 12th century church of the Holy Trinity.The first documents with any mention of the town date back to 1196, it was awarded charters by the both Richard I and the Bishop Of Worcester. What is Tourism? Tourism is a ‘multisectoral activity that requires inputs from many industries-agriculture, construction, manufacturing- and from both the public and private sector to produce the goods and services used by tourists. It has no clearly determined boundaries and no physical output; it is a provider of services which in range will vary between countries.’ Another more concise definition is “Leisure time activity generally defined as involving an overnight stay or more, away from home. What are Tourists? All types of visitor engaged in tourism are described as visitors, a term that constitutes the basic concept for the whole system of tourism statistics; the term visitor may be further subdivided into the same-day visitors and tourists as follows: visitors are defined as people who travel to a county rather than in which they have their usual residence but outside their usual environment for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose of the visit is other than the activity remunerated from within the place visited; same-day visitors are visitors who do not spend the night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited; while tourists are visitors who stay in the country visited for at least one night’. The Importance Of Tourism Globally
‘By the year 2000 tourism would become the world’s major economic activity, surpassing even the trade in oil and manufactured goods. ‘It is an important factor in the economy of most developed countries and is seen by many developing countries as the one possible way to obtain income and to create jobs’. Globally, there were ‘500 million’ tourist arrivals in 1996, even discluding domestic tourism.
The Importance Of Tourism In Stratford As the birthplace of Shakespeare, Stratford capitalises on its history to great effect. Its three theatres, shops, and entertainment industry accounts for ‘the basis of its economy’; as ‘about 2.5 million people visit the town annually. More than 75% of the town’s work force is employed in the service industries (principally in distribution, tourist-related employment, catering and financial services). Method To find all of my data for this project I had to do a variety of things. They include: * Waiting outside the Stratford Information Centre, and asked people flowing in and out a series of questions relating to my project. I did thirty questionnaires, so that the results were reliable. The topics included origins of visitor, visitor motivation, age, occupation and accommodation. * Carrying out series of environmental evaluations around the town in strategic locations. This allowed me to get an overall view of the towns atmosphere, problems and scenic points, and then compare the different places and the reasons why they were as such. They included my observations on such things as graffiti, pavements, kerbs, open space, trees, gardens and traffic problems. * Interviews were held with five merchants around the town to discover their point of view on the geographical effects of tourism in their area. I asked them their opinions on subjects such as the geographical positive and negative aspects on tourism, and tourism’s impact on the town, and along with this their own personal opinions of the town. I recorded it on a Dictaphone. * Walking around all of the main car parks in Stratford, noting where the cars had come from. I did this by observing the stamp on the license, which is issued at the nearest post-office to the person’s home. This would allow me to see a clear a picture of the origins of the domestic market in Stratford. * Visiting the Local Library, Tourist Office, Town Hall and Civic Halls. This gave me a variety of secondary data including a 400 page book on a recent project on Stratford. This data was very reliable and very comprehensive. It was the most efficient way of finding true seasonal data, and provides the basis for my secondary data. When I say ’secondary’ data I mean that it was taken from this survey, and ‘primary’ data was correlated by my own research. At the local library I also was given many leaflets, advertising various attractions around Stratford, three of which are found in this section. * Visiting the local bus offices and collected a time table and services map. * Collecting data from the Internet including a town map and information on local services, from web sites in Stratford. Advantages Of Tourism *Income introduced into local area. Capital is spent in local shops and in local facilities. *Tourism provides employment for local people and consequently sometimes prevents migration away from remote areas. *Increased interest in the area could lead to better protection of environment or other attracting features.*Greater wealth in local area means a higher proportion of taxes available and therefore improved infrastructure. Disadvantages Of Tourism *Much of employment provided is only seasonal. *Congestion of people and vehicles, sometimes in old settlements that are not capable of dealing with the problem.*Over-use can damage the attraction, e.g. environment degradation due to visitor pressure.*Strain on resources. *Increased development can cause a change in a traditional way of life. *Loss of privacy for local population *Litter, crime and vandalism. Environmental Evaluation + = good – = bad AreaScoreComments Wood Street-5Commercial Area Bridge Street4Main Road Union Street-2Banking High Street-4Commercial Area Windsor Street11Pedestrianised N Windsor Street14Pedestrianised Town Hall17Historical West Street6Rectilinear Housing Hall’s Croft-6Modern 70’s Plastic Housing Other Place18Theatre & Gardens Swan10Sub Road Chapel Lane14Rectilinear Housing Royal Shakes23Theatre & Gardens Bancroft Gdn17Theatre & Gardens Bridgefoot3Major Road Red Lion Walk16Pedestrianised Market1Car Park John Street-10Machine Centre Bridge20Historical Site Rother St.10Market Anne Hathaways23Historical Tourist Attraction Leisure Centre16Large Car Park & Lawn Scholars Lane12Residential Average7 Interviews With Stratford’s Residents Questions 1)Do you gear your products towards the tourist market? 2)Overall, do you think Stratford has benefited from the tourist influx? 3)What are the negative aspects of tourism in your opinion? 4)What are the positive Aspects of Tourism in your opinion? 5)Would you like to see a change in tourist numbers? The People Interviewed *Shopkeeper At Cotswold Collection, Clothes Shop Red Lion Walk. *Shopkeeper At “The Big Blue Baguette Boat”, Stratford Canal. *”Big Issue” Salesman, Stratford High Street Pavement. *Shopkeepers In Martin’s Delicatessen. *Bar Man In Coffee House. Interview with Shopkeeper At “The Big Blue Baguette Boat”, Stratford Canal. *- Yeah, we have quite a lot of Americans who come by, so we kind of have mayonnaise here, which the English are not really used to. *- Yeah, I suppose quite a lot of people like me make quite a bit of money. *- Yeah, well they do cause quite a lot of trouble, tourists, especially at the weekends when you can’t move down the street. Just too many if them. *- Just bring the number up I guess. If they came all year round that would be good. Interview with Big Issue Salesman, Stratford High Street Pavement. 1) Yeah, I suppose so, I’d say it does. 3) I suppose you might get too many people in mightn’t you. Lots of people like them don’t like to see people like me on the street because it does not do the tourism any good, really. You can get quite a lot of hassle about that. And the traffic, lots of traffic all the time. I don’t have much to do with the community. I live in a bus like so. I’m not part of the community do you understand what I mean? I’m not part of this community here. My community’s people like me I suppose. I mean everyone here sees funnily enough. I don’t really do much trade with the tourists. The Americans and the Japanese tend to ignore you a lot. Its more the Europeans. The Italians might stop, and the French. They don’t speak English but they understand what the paper’s about. As for the Americans and Japanese. I mean sometimes its quite strange, they walk around this town as if its theirs, with a bit of an arrogant attitude Interview with Shopkeeper’s In Martin’s Delicatessen. *No I don’t think it really is apart from our ice-cream. *5% *I think one of the major problems is the fact that because of the tourists all the locals avoid town. Everywhere you go the tourists are, and this breaks down local community spirit. What locals want is their own little town centre. They don’t come in anymore. What you could do is confine them to a certain area, and give us our own private town centre, where neither group has to mix with the others. Also I’d like to see them spend more money. Also they don’t support the smaller shops like us like domestic demand would. Interview with Bar Man In Coffee House. *Yes *50% *Yeah they’re good for business but I suppose it means higher prices for locals, and the death of real local stores, and the rise of gift and clothes shops. But you still can’t get any decent clothes anywhere. Tourism Questionnaire *Where are you from? *Why did you come here? *How did you get here? *Where are you staying? *How long are you staying for? *Was it difficult to find accommodation in Stratford? *What is your Occupation? (Please Specify) *What age category do you fall into?The Responses to the Tourism Questionnaire 1) Where are you from? U.KRest Of World Stratford 0U.S.A 3 Warwickshire 0Australia 1 East Midlands 2Germany 1 North West 1Canada 3 North-East 1France 1 South-West 4South Africa 1 South-East 5Ireland 0 Scotland 0Japan 1 Wales 1Rest Of Europe 1 West Midlands 2Rest Of World 3 2) Why did you come here? Theatre 5Anne Hathaway’s Cottage 2 Warwick Castle 6Shakespeare’s Birthplace 5 River 4Shopping 5 Business 0Friends/Relatives 7 Famous 4Passing By 0 On The Tour 2Nash’s house 2 Sightseeing 3Other: 3 3) How did you get here? Private Car 11Train 3 Public Bus 1Tour Coach 3 Rented Car 4Other: 2 4)Where are you staying? Hotel 13Friends/Relatives 2 B&B 5Campsite 0 Motel 0Boat 0 Other: 2. 5)How long are you staying for? 1 Night 74-7 Nights 2 2 Nights 117-14 Nights 0 3 Nights 114+ Nights 1 0 Nights 4 6) Was it difficult to find accommodation In Stratford? No 18Yes 5 7) What age category do you fall into? 0-14 345-54 3 15-24 455-64 3 25-34 965+ 2 35-44 3 8) What is your Occupation? HGV Driver 1Teacher 3 Retired 2Therapist 1 Designer 1Clerical 2 Professor 3Safety Officer 1 Artist 1Technician 1 Student 4Printer 1 Workman 2Civil Servant 1 Engineer 2Judge 1 Secretary 1Organist 1 Psychotherapist 1 Top Attractions In Stratford Name of AttractionNumber Of Visitors Mary Arden’s House A.Hathaways CottageCombined Hall’s Croft1037238 Shakespeare Birthplace Holy Trinity Church22000 Heritage Motor Centre160000 Shire Horse Centre12000 Charlecote Park84183 Ragley Hall81645 Submit an EssayEssay Submitted by: Anon Hypotheses 1)Without the theatre, the vast majority of Tourists would not come to Stratford. This describes what the main motivation for tourists who decide to come to Stratford is, i.e whether they come to Stratford because it is warm and sunny or because there is a large amount of mind-expanding history and culture. 2)Most People come to Stratford by car. This describes how people travel to Stratford once they reach the airport, or once they leave home. 3)Stratford’s transport usage changes over the year. I would like to find out if the seasons affect what type of transport is used at different times and why this is so. 4)More tourists = More problems I would like to discover whether tourists have a detrimental effect on the environment, economy and general nature of the town. 5)Because Stratford is a Cultural Tourist Attraction, It Will Attract Short Stay Visitors Here I want to know whether Stratford conforms to the stereotype of a cultural centre, in one aspect. 6)People come to Stratford for different reasons at different times of the year. I would like to discover which people come to Stratford at different times and for what reasons. 7)Most visitors come from richer, foreign countries. 76.3 % of global tourists come to and from EMDC’s above the Brandt Report’s North/South PQLI line. I would like to discover whether this is true for Stratford’s visitors. Analysis : Accommodation Difficulty of finding accommodation in Stratford. The large percentage of people finding it difficult to find accommodation in Stratford is probably not due to a bed shortage but probably due to the marketing and logistics perspective. In addition to this, there is the fact that a large number of people do not go into the tourist information centre, but instead try to ring each hotel/B&B individually, so therefore they would have found it harder. Length Of Stay. This graph clearly shows that the type of visitor Stratford attracts is the short-stay visitor, who stays in Stratford for an average of two nights. A very small proportion of the visitors stayed for longer than this.This indicates the type of visitor Stratford receives. The people who stay in Stratford for zero to two nights will normally be in Stratford to visit the cultural attractions and shops in the immediate area around Stratford, rather than for long package holidays. Type Of Accommodation. The main provider of Stratford’s accommodation market is taken up by Hotels and B&B’s. Here there are unexpectedly large amounts of people coming to see friends and relatives.Hotels dominate the landscape around Stratford, such as large chains of hotels such as Holiday Inn .Some people may divide their main holiday into short ‘mini-breaks’1 ,which is what is happening here. Here we can say that “cultural centres tend to attract short-stay visitors and people on touring holidays rather than long-stay tourists.”This shows that visitors to Stratford desire a more refined approach to accommodation, staying in mainstream demand patterns. Here the camp-site and boat options do not appear, suggesting that Stratford attracts a more refined, affluent guest than usual, who can pay to see the sights, shop in the town and pay for comfortable bed. Amount Of Accommodation Vs. Number Of Visitors. These graphs have a strong correlation, clearly suggesting that the more people there are in Stratford, the more people there are who sleep in Stratford. Interestingly, these graphs correspond exactly to the temperature change in Stratford, meaning that people prefer to come when it is warm. Implications Of Information. One fact to emerge from this information is that tourism in Stratford is affected by the seasons heavily. In the summer the hotels and B&B’s are close to bursting point, whereas in the winter they are struggling for survival. In the summer there are huge numbers of tour buses, also contributing to the economy. This means that in turn the number of visitors to the theatres, shops and sights will decrease as well. This is very important because it means that in the summer people will be sucked from the surrounding areas to run the businesses, and then be spat out again in the summer, jobless. Theoretically this will mean less stability financially for the residents of the surrounding region, and a temporary recession in the winter Analysis: Distribution of Visitors Average Income of Tourists In Stratford . Unsurprisingly the countries who sent the most visitors to the Stratford tourist industry in Stratford were the most affluent. Nearly all come from the more affluent western nations such as Canada and U.S.A. Only Mexico comes in below the poverty line, and this person was a student living off various grants. The second largest donors were again in the higher reaches of the GNP region. This is because we they have more leisure time due to mechanisation and mostly have office jobs with high per hour pay which means they can work for less hours and earn more money. Because they have more money and time that means that they boost the leisure and tourist industry, here in the incarnation of Stratford. Origins Of Visitors to Stratford – Worldwide. Here it is evident that the major source of Stratford is the domestic market, and then after that the English speaking colonies, and affluent European countries with English as their second language. This is probably because they can speak English and feel more comfortable and secure in a country where they communicate without a phrase-book. The proximity of Europe and the highly developed European communications infrastructure would enable continentals to visit England in a very short space of time. Origin Of Visitors To Stratford – Domestic . These diagrams show that the majority of visitors to Stratford come from the more affluent southern areas. This is probably because they earn more and have more free leisure time and money to spend. Analysis : Effect of Visitors Environmental Evaluation Of Stratford And Distribution Of Visitors. Here we can see that there is a connection between the quality of different areas if Stratford and the amount of visitors, but it is distorted because of the traffic issue. Areas on the high street were perfectly pleasant but because there was a main-road running through them, they degraded quite heavily. But for the main area of Stratford, wherever the visitors go it is generally aesthetically pleasing. There is an abundance of flowers and historical buildings, which are clean and tidy primarily because there are tourists there, which in turn gives the council enough money to fund street sweepers and police, to keep graffiti, crime, vandalism and litter away from the tourists and surroundings. Certainly, the tourists have a positive impact on the areas they populate most. Interview. I think that the population of Stratford are generally appreciative of the overwhelming support the tourists provide, and realise how important the market is. There were generally apprehensive to criticise the tourists, and seemed to have lost their community spirit, with only one person of all interviewed mentioning it. Of the detrimental effects concerned, the community spirit and the blockage of the streets were the most evident.What Effect Will Visitors Have On Stratford in The Future? I have concluded that tourism is good for Stratford, in fact that it is the life-blood of Stratford. Maybe tourists are rude,maybe tourists are inconsiderate to the people of Stratford, but I know that I personally would rather have a job, a livelihood ,a high quality of living and tourists in the town that the opposite to that. They bring very few problems to Stratford- one mentioned here , possibly the most drastic one was that you could not walk own the street because of the tourists. Instead of using this as a negative factor, I would consider this good. If this has a solution, it is pedestrianisation. If this is was brought about, then it would benefit Stratford’s local economy hugely. One way is that the car would decrease in popularity because there were less convenient parking spaces near the shops. Instead people would use public transport, and this money could in turn be reinvested to benefit the isolated rural communities further afield, so that Stratford could become the primate city for a larger area, and grow even more. In a bizarre way it could help Stratford. Other forthcoming effects include, of course, the sustenance of the economy, the exceptionally high quality of life, the local services and improvement in Shops etc. Virtually all services in Stratford would not exist with such a small threshold population if it were not for tourists. This is because the type of visitors that Stratford attracts, i.e cultural visitors, that tend not to be aggressive. Seasonal and Yearly Variation Numbers Of Visitors Over 5 Years. This graph shows quite conclusively that the small number of visitors is growing. We can see that there is a clear year upon year increase in growth, apart form the blip in 1997, which is not only representative of the overall trend. It is merely an Eddie current in the tide of tourism. This graph is not the actual number of visitors to Stratford, but the numbers who come into the tourism office. Nevertheless, it is actually representative of the overall trend, as the other constants of advertising costs, have remained stable. In a recent survey, 20% of visitors in Stratford went to the tourist office. This would mean that there are 2.5 million visitors in Stratford every year, and the figures are accurate. Socioeconomic Seasonal Variation In Stratford visitors. This graph shows a variety of interesting insights into tourism in Stratford. Firstly it shows that the people who can afford to come to Stratford do come. Stratford is the preserve of the more affluent segments of the population, shown here by the dominance of the AB group. Those who have less money come less. This is shown in every season, with the amount of visitors diminishing the lower down the socioeconomic table you go. leisure time is expensive in Stratford, with an average day out costing in the neighbourhood of £44 per day. The only variation to this rule was in autumn, where more DE people came than CD by around 6%- a minor discrepancy. Also the graph tells us about the fact that more AB visitors come in the Autumn and winter rather than the summer. Either this is because more people come to Stratford in the summer and spring solely because of the warm weather for simpler, less expensive pursuits such as sitting by the river or playing games by the parks. Another hypotheses is that in the other seasons more upper class people come for more expensive pursuits such as the theatre and shopping. On the socioeconomic group’s visiting times, the graph shows that Stratford attracts a very large proportion high-class groupings. This is because the AB groups presence declines in the warmer months, which is probably because they come to Stratford on business because they can afford to pay the ticket prices, and because they are in a higher grouping, which means that they can afford to pay the ticket prices, and because they are in a higher grouping, they are more likely to travel on business. Seasonal Visitor Motivation Variation For Visitors To Stratford. Here there is evidently a direct correlation between the weather and activities. An example of this is the variation between shopping and weather. In the summer, shopping is relatively low, and sightseeing is relatively high. But in the winter, they become the reciprocal of each other. This is because shopping is indoors and sightseeing outdoors. Weather affects activities. Seasonal Changes In Methods Of Transport. This is another example of weather affecting activities. In the summer, tour bus usage is relatively high, but in the winter relatively low, and this corresponds to decline n the car. But this time it is because Tour Buses are used for holidays in the summer, and cars do not literally replace them. Because there are less tour buses in the winter, cars merely increase because there are less tour buses in comparison. Public bus usage remains the same, suggesting that it is the residents who use them, which does not fluctuate, and not the tourists. Number Of Visitors Over A Year . These graphs correspond exactly to the temperature change in Stratford, meaning that people come when it is hot, when it is not they do not. One of the reasons for tourism is the “unreliable British weather and the desire to find places with a hot, dry, sunny climate.”1 Some people may divide their main holiday into short ‘mini-breaks’2 which is what is happening here.Why does the amount of Visitors to Stratford rise? -Return Visitors. Over a lengthier period, Shakespeare’s Birthplace has recorded a great rise in visitor numbers. In 1992 there were 577,704 visitors, whereas in 1852, there were only 2321 visitors.3 . One of the main factors is the high percentage of repeat visits. Approximately two thirds of visitors are return visitors with 800,000 new visitors are new every year, that means that there will be huge numbers in the future if these then return. This will also have knock-on effects, as more people tell each other about Stratford, then even more will come. -More Wealth. At the time of these figures being produced, we find ourselves at a time of unrivalled peace and prosperity. The stock-markets reach records highs, mechanisation of labour and the gradual rise of leisure time means more money, and more free time in which to spend it. This is manifested in Stratford, with increased visitor numbers and spending. This will have a dramatic effect on Stratford. Already an economy with very little industry or anything unrelated with tourism, it will not see itself diversify. Its one oxygen supply i.e. tourism, will continue to feed it well. The amount of money flowing into Stratford will increase, which will mean increased employment in this labour intensive tertiary sector. Eventually migration towards Stratford will develop, and the town will grow as the money grows. The environment will benefit as the money fuels redevelopment schemes, and so on. Analysis: Socioeconomic Variation Demographics Of Visitors To Stratford Socioeconomic Seasonal Variation In Stratford Visitors This graph shows a variety of interesting insights into tourism in Stratford. Firstly it shows that the people who can afford to come to Stratford do come. Stratford is the preserve of the more affluent segments of the population, shown here by the dominance of the AB group. Those who have less money come less. This is shown in every season, with the amount of visitors diminishing the lower down the socioeconomic table you go. leisure time is expensive in Stratford, with an average day out costing in the neighbourhood of £44 per day. The only variation to this rule was in autumn, where more DE people came than CD by around 6%- a minor discrepancy.Also the graph tells us about the fact that more AB visitors come in the autumn and winter rather than the summer. Either this is because more people come to Stratford in the summer and spring solely because of the warm weather for simpler, less expensive pursuits such as sitting by the river or playing games by the parks. Another hypotheses is that in the autumn and winter more upper class people come for more expensive pursuits such as the theatre and shopping.On the socioeconomic group’s visiting times, the graph shows that Stratford attracts a very large proportion from high-class groupings. This is because the AB class groups can pay the £44 a day average visitor spend. The AB group presence declines in the warmer months, because of of the influx of sight-seers, which dilutes the percentages of higher class people. The levels of people who go on business will remain the same, as will the amount who go to the theatre.This will affect Stratford by the cycle in the economy over a year. It will mean more jobs in catering for the Business and Theatre industries. It will mean more conference and theatre jobs in the summer, and more sightseeing jobs in summer. Wage Versus Length Of Stay This graph illustrates three things. Firstly it shows that the average tourist stays for a short length of time, secondly that they all have very similar wages, and finally that people who stay for long periods of times are notable exceptions. The first two points have been explained elsewhere, so I shall try justify the third phenomenon. The two people staying for over fourteen days were in fact staying in Stratford for six months as students, one was from Bolivia, the other from Malaysia. They were both students studying English. As they were from poorer countries they would presumably not have been tourists and therefore not have been able to afford the costs of travel that the average Stratford tourists would normally be able to. Age Groups This chart shows that the majority of the people interviewed were 25-34, by a clear margin. This was probably because these were the kind of people who would go into a tourist information centre. The age group direct blow this were the second highest contributors, probably because of this. The reasons that this age-group came out top was because of many different factors. Probably one of the main factors was that these people came for a specific kind of activity, i.e. one that costs less. Being younger they are on average not likely to have risen up the wage ladder yet and so can not afford a luxurious activity, and so need advice on the free activities in Stratford. This was one of the problems associated with the selective way in which people were chosen in my survey. The older age groups declined interviews for the majority of the times. They assumed I was some sort of commercial poller, and so did not help me. In the younger people, nearly all accepted my invitation to be interviewed. This was probably because they felt more relaxed and able to help someone like them.There is a much higher proportion in group AB and a much lower proportion in group C. This is probably because many activities in Stratford are expensive: a ticket to the RSC can cost £10 each. Data Collection I collected this data using the survey I carried out. I think apart from the unreliable nature of a small sample there where no problems with it. If I had sat down outside tourist sites and guessed the age of passer-by I could have obtained a more reliable profile of age-groups in Stratford. Also if I had been able to analyse the different jobs in different countries then this would have been a better overall picture of the socioeconomic range in Stratford tourists. Socioeconomic Profile Differences In Stratford Visitors In Relation To Pursuits The activity/ socioeconomic groupings highlighted some interesting points. The tourists from overseas were in the same wealth bands as the native tourist, despite 14% being from the more affluent USA. This is probably because the survey measured the groupings on jobs rather than actual pay. The average pay in America is higher than here, which would probably make up for the perceived differences in wealth, which are not highlighted here.The people who are touring from overseas and stay overnight are more affluent that those on day trips. This is probably to do with the prices paid. Clarification: Social Class AB/CD, etc. ‘In the 1980s, social scientists continued to disagree about the definition of class in general, the composition and relative importance of the middle class , the role of the upper class in the larger society, and the degree to which the society was evolving into a more open system. It was difficult to speak of social class per se because class implied feelings of cohesion and exclusiveness vis-à-vis other classes.Four classes and their relative proportions could be distinguished in the mid-1980s: upper class, 5 percent; middle class, 20 percent; lower class, 50 percent; and the masses, 25 percent. There were also two important transitional subdivisions: the new rich, who constituted perhaps 3 percent of the total and were tenuously members of the upper class ; and the upper lower class , organized blue-collar workers, and poorer white-collar workers, who make up about 15 percent of the total.Classes are distinguished by occupation, life-style, income, family background, education, and power. Within each of the classes, there were numerous subtle gradations in status’1 . In my project class AB is the upper middle classes, class BC the lower middle classes, and D the lower classes. Transport Method Of Transport. Here we can see as expected that the major method of transport for visitors is the car with about 60% usage. This coincides with my other findings, where many people came either to see friends and relatives or on short stay trips. This graph shows a fairly even amount of car, bus, bike, train and coach usage. The subsidiary methods of transport account for a surprisingly large amount of the overall transportation. The rented car is often used by foreigners touring the country, perhaps visiting the many cultural sites around Stratford. Seasonal Change In Methods Of Transport . This graph shows that the car is always the principal method of transport. It is used in the winter the most, and the least in the summer. This is probably because of the cold weather in the winter and warm weather in the summer. People are unwilling to brave the cold weather and the inconvenience of carrying shopping around. The tour bus is the exact opposite to this. It peaks in the summer along with the demand for sightseeing, and and in the colder months reduces in popularity. These two factors are intertwined, as they both impede on each other’s market. The train and bus services are always very unpopular. Cycling and walking are clearly more popular in the summer, again because of the weather. Mode Of Transport And Country . The foreigners as car users account for 28% of traffic. This is a major part of the congestion in Stratford. The Irish are the greatest users of private cars, probably due to the fact that they unlike others, can drive over on the ferries with their cars. This means that they can afford to come here on a day trip and hence come here more often. They then can meet friends and relatives, and hence will use their cars around Stratford if they for example, fly to Stratford The Japanese have a very advanced public transport system, and thus expect that when they come here. While in Japan they grow accustomed to using trains, buses and public transport and are probably more fluent and adept at navigating the complex infrastructure of public transport. They have the lowest usage of cars. This is yet another manifestation of the fact that whatever the tourist uses in his own country, they will probably use here. The South-Africans and the Americans have high percentage of tour-bus users in relation to other nationalities, probably because of the popularity of tour-buses where they come from, and because of the price they deem acceptable. Mode Of Transport-Residents. The residents use a similar amount of cars as the visitors, but for different reasons. Here it is due to shopping, and collecting goods, dropping kids off at school and to go to work, rather than travelling over on the ferries and from country to country. People who live in Stratford are not going to catch the bus because there is no internal bus service, and so they are obliged to use their car. The large ‘other’ section is accounted for by short distance trips by foot or by bicycle. The Availability Of Rural Bus Services Stratford. This is indicates that the bus network stretches around Stratford for around 20 miles. It extends into the many isolated villages, and reaches until the next sizable town. The frequent services offer a daily service to the majority of the population. Why is the Car so popular? The car is the primary method of transport for Britain, and the modern world. In Stratford, a number of localised and nationwide reasons can account for this. Firstly, I would like to deal with a local scale. First we have to consider the alternatives to the car. The bus service offers a practical and inexpensive alternative, as shown in the map in the previous section. The price and frequency of the services are particularly good- a return visit to Stratford costs only £3. in the majority of villages shown. They also begin at six in the morning and end at eleven in the night. 2These services are also combined with a park and ride scheme. Despite this of 72% of visitors who live in a thirty mile radius of Stratford, only 2% use the buses. However, there are reasons for the unpopularity of the buses. Firstly buses take longer than cars, sometimes thee times longer. The very fact that they visit so many settlements so often means that instead of going straight to Stratford from town X they have to visit towns X, Y and Z, on the way. There are many provisions for the car in Stratford. As well as convenient spaces along the high-street, there are three large car-parks that hold upwards of 700 vehicles. “The biggest advantage is convenience as goods can make door to door journeys without having to make changes. Cars are increasingly being used for journeys to work, shopping, recreation and holidays.”3 . Cars probably could have also contributed to the downfall of public transport in Stratford. Because the roads used for public transport are so congested, less people will use the bus network. “Compared with road transport, rail avoids congestion, causes less pollution, is cheaper and quicker over relatively long distances, and is both safer and more comfortable. Despite this, the amount of goods and number of rail passengers carried continues to decline in comparison to road transport. One main reason for this is the delay in travelling to and from the stations, and then, often , the need to transfer to and from stations.”4 . The majority of the visitors to Stratford are part of the domestic market. It is cheaper and more convenient to drive to Stratford rather than to the station. “The increase in car ownership has given people much greater freedom to choose where and when they go for the day or for a longer period of time. …During the same period (1950-1990) the number of motorways had increased (Britain had none in 1951), as had the quality of roads and the number of bypasses built to avoid bottlenecks and steep gradients. This has led to a reduction in driving time between places, which has encouraged people to travel great distances.”5 This had led the surge in the domestic market, (see origin of visitors,) and because of this the rise in the amount of cars in Stratford. The global trend of increased car usage has appeared in Stratford. “Cultural centres tend to attract short-stay visitors and people on touring holidays rather than long-stay tourists.”6 This explains why there are so many frequent trips with the car, and so many tour-buses, in comparison with the national average. With tour buses what we see is people touring the Cotswolds, and cultural attractions such as Warwick castle and Ragley Hall, with Stratford being one of the stops What Effects Will this Type of Transport Usage Have On Stratford? With the car as the overwhelming transport for all concerned with Stratford, we can expect the most prominent and obvious effect to be traffic and thus traffic-related problems. Already traffic is heavy in Stratford, precisely because of the reasons outline in the passage above. Traffic related problems include severe congestion, pollution of the surrounding area with noxious lead additives, carbon dioxide and monoxide, sulphur dioxide and other poisonous chemicals. This is because the street system designed in the 16 the century can not cope with the huge amount of fast moving, volatile traffic. Because it becomes clogged this will mean the cars become slower, and remain in Stratford for longer, and thus give off more fumes. This means less pedestrians, because of the choking smog around the streets.