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Shot Put

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Shot Put Essay, Research Paper

Shot Put Technique (linear)

The throw broken down: (right handed thrower)

(a) stand-up and hold:

-shot rests on base of fingers

-arm relatively horizontal to ground

-shot pushed against neck, underneath chin

-stand with back facing direction of throw at the back of the circle

(b) preparation for the glide

-center of mass lowered and primarily on right leg

(c) glide

-short body movement to give the shot momentum

-hop-like movement keeping the center of mass low and over the right leg

-ideally both feet arrive at power position at the same time

(d) power position

-right foot perpendicular to the throwing direction

-center of mass low and over right leg

-left leg extended with toe planted to form base of support

-base of support as wide as possible without hindering the throwing action

(e) putting action

-left arm swings over the top, opening the doorway for the throwing action

-lifting action is initiated by using the slower, stronger muscles of the leg, with forces then transferred to the trunk and arms

-shot released at a 40 degree angle over a straight left leg A Basic Teaching Progression

1. Introduction of the hold

2. Introduction of the shot’s proper position under the chin against the neck

3. Putting the shot downward into the ground to establish proper wrist action

4. Deliveries: facing the direction of the throw, sitting back on a bent right leg with both feet pointing toward the direction of throw, transfer weight from the right leg to the supporting left toe and deliver the shot.

5. Cross-step and putting action.

6. One step forward and putting action.

7. One step back and putting action.

8. Series of glides on a straight line.

9. Glide in the circle to a premarked power position.

10. glide connected to the putting action.

11. Hop on right leg, tuck the foot under the body at a righ tangle.

12. Pivot on a 15cm platform (dependent upon height of athlete).

13. Pivot on a 15cm platform and putting action.

14. Glide from elevated area and throw.

15. Glide and throw under a high jump bar to promote a low power position.


Copyright: Mike Maynard; The University of Arizona

A. Grip all of the fingers should be together or nearly together on the shot The ball should be resting on the upper pad of the hand, and supported by the fingers

B. Preliminary Stance The athlete may we .either an upright T starting position or a crouch start (Feurbach start). The advantage in the “T” start is the ability of the athlete to utilize the added momentum of dropping the CM to aid in the shifting of the body across the circle. The negative aspect of this technique is that it requires that the athlete master the advanced technique of unseating the CM in a consistent and controlled manner to take advantage of this upright start The static positioning in the Feurbach start requires a greater amount of leg strength in order to execute a powerful and effective thrust across the circle. However the positional advantages of the crouch start allow that the athlete can easily and consistency be in the proper “bottom” position for every throw.

C. Setting the shot The shot should be placed under, and slightly forward of the point of the jaw. It should not rest on the shoulder or clavicle, but be pressed into the neck firmly. Once the athlete has the ball in the neck, the shoulder should then be “cocked” back to facilitate a natural trailing relationship relative to the hips, and establish a pre stretched position in the pectoral/ deltoid area of the throwing side.

D. Single Support From the bottom position in both techniques, the athlete should forcefully and completely extend base the support leg and the free leg. The last body segment to lift off the ring should be the heel of the support side foot The free leg should nearly scrape the ring and be aimed at the bottom of the toe board. The thrower should also focus on leaving the torso and whole non throwing side of the upper body down and at the back of the circle. This tends to counteract the common mistake of hyper extending the back and pulling the free side arm in and back and up during the glide phase of the throw.

E. Hip / Torso The hip axis should be parallel to the shoulder axis at the beginning of the throw. Owe the athlete has completed the single support movement, and the system is in non support, the thrower must turn the hip axis parallel to the direction of the throw (open the hips toward 90.). This movement is critical to the establishment of torque for use in the delivery of the throw. It is also equally important to turn the support side lower body to 90., this will aid the thrower in creating an active support side pivot

F. Blocking Mechanics A solid blocking action will maximize the distance potential of a successfully executed throw. When a sudden deceleration occurs at or below the CM the momentum of those body segments is transferred to the body segment above the CM. In a like manner the deceleration of the body segments of the free/ blocking side, transfer the momentum to the throwing side of the body. the free arm, and the free leg become the blocking side. The blocking leg should perform a bracing action against which the rotation/ lift of the support side acts. The force acting upon a rigid block leg will be transferred to the upper body segments of the thrower. By shortening the radius of the free/ blocking arm and simultaneously stopping the rotation of the shoulder a is the thrower can isolate the transfer of momentum to the throwing side shoulder and arm.

G. Recovery / Reversing This part of the throw is commonly over taught and overused. The reverse is simply a recovery of balance from the immediately preceding movements in an effort to stay within the circle. The reverse should in no way take the place of an active pivot/ rotation of the support side body segments. Novice and advanced throwers alike should learn to throw effectively with the feet fixed. When the throwers are capable of accelerating into the block in this manner, they will develop a delayed and appropriately timed reverse. initially, it can sometimes be effective to urge the athlete to jump up into the throw, however they should never jump into the reverse without completing the finishing sequence..

Field Events

Shot Put Glide Drill

Shot putters using the glide technique often nullify the benefits of the glide because they lose their balance or don’t have the specific strength to stay low as they cross the ring.

Here’s a simple drill that will teach your shot putters to produce a low, balanced glide that will place them in the ideal position to generate maximum power.

The Drill

The drill is simple. Have your putters hold a shot in the throwing position against their neck. They assume the starting position of the glide: knees bent, non-throwing arm held out for balance, eyes on a fixed point behind them.

They then hop backwards on their drive leg, attempting to maintain a bent leg position, landing with the knee over or forward of the foot. Have them hop as far as they can while maintaining the correct position, with the focus on powering off the bent leg. Give them several minutes to recover then repeat.

Coaching Pointers

Watch for the position of the bent leg as it lands-once it starts to straighten, stop the repetition. In the shot put technique, landing on a straight leg reduces that leg’s ability to generate power and produces a premature lifting of the center of gravity.

- D.M.


A drill to teach your shot putters to propel themselves

across the ring while maintaining a low, balanced, coiled position.

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