Julius Caesar Caesar was born to the oldest patrician family in Rome, Julian gen, despite this he was a member of the democratic or popular party. In 63 B.C. as pontifex maximus he under took the reform of the calendar and made one of his greatest contributions to history, the Julian calendar. In 60 B.C. Caesar organized a coalition, known as the first Triumvirate. Campaigns to Britain and the Britons proved Julius Caesar was one of the greatest military commanders of all time. On January 19, 49 B.C. Caesar crossed the Rubicon and the civil war began. At Pharsala, Caesar defeated Pompey, once a companion, and then traveled to Egypt. In Egypt he stayed with Cleopatra and firmly established her on her throne. When he returned to Rome , he passed agrarian laws , improved housing accommodations and became dictator for life. Caesar s powers aroused resentment in his enemies and a conspiracy was formed against him by his friends. On March 15, 44 B.C. Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in the senate.