приховати рекламу

Euthanisa


Нажми чтобы узнать.
скачати

Euthanisa Essay, Research Paper

The applied ethical issue of euthanasia, or mercy killing, concerns whether it is morally

permissible for a third party, such as a physician, to end the life of a terminally ill patient

who is in intense pain.

The euthanasia controversy is part of a larger issue concerning the right to die.

Staunch defenders of personal liberty argue that all of us are morally entitled to end our

lives when we see fit. Thus, according to these people, suicide is in principle morally

permissible. For health care workers, the issue of the right to die is most prominent when a

patient in their care (1) is terminally ill, (2) is in intense pain, and (3) voluntarily chooses

to end his life to escape prolonged suffering. In these cases, there are several theoretical

options open to the health care worker. First, the worker can ignore the patient’s request

and care can continue as usual. Second, the worker can discontinue providing

life-sustaining treatment to the patient, and thus allow him to die more quickly. This

option is called passive euthanasia since it brings on death through nonintervention. Third,

the health care worker can provide the patient with the means of taking his own life, such

as a lethal dose of a drug. This practice is called assisted suicide, since it is the patient, and

not technically the health care worker, who administers the drug. Finally, the health care

worker can take active measures to end the patient’s life, such as by directly administering

a lethal dose of a drug. This practice is called active euthanasia since the health care

worker’s action is the direct cause of the patient’s death. Active euthanasia is the most

controversial of the four options and is currently illegal in the United States. However,

several right to die organizations are lobbying for the laws against active euthanasia to

change.

Two additional concepts are relevant to the discussion of euthanasia. First,

voluntary euthanasia refers to mercy killing that takes place with the explicit and voluntary

consent of the patient, either verbally or in a written document such as a living will.

Second, nonvoluntary euthanasia refers to the mercy killing of a patient who is

unconscious, comatose, or otherwise unable to explicitly make his intentions known. In

these cases it is often family members who make the request. It is important not to confuse

nonvoluntary mercy killing with involuntary mercy killing. The latter would be done

against the wishes of the patient and would clearly count as murder.

Like the moral issues surrounding suicide, the problem of euthanasia has a long

history of philosophical discussion. On the whole, ancient Greek thinkers seem to have

favored euthanasia, even though they opposed suicide. An exception is is Hippocrates

(460-370 BCE), the ancient Greek physician, who in his famous oath states that "I will not

prescribe a deadly drug to please someone, nor give advice that may cause his death." The

entire oath is presented below, which places emphasis on the value of preserving life and

in putting the good of patients above the private interests of physicians. These two aspects

of the oath make it an important creed for many heath care workers today. In medieval

times, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim philosophers opposed active euthanasia, although the

Christian Church has always accepted passive euthanasia.

During the Renaissance, English humanist Thomas More (1478-1535) defended

Euthanasia in book Utopia (1516). More describes in idealic terms the function of

hospitals. Hospital workers watch after patients with tender care and do everything in their

power to cure ills. However, when a patient has a torturous and incurable illness, the

patient has the option to die, either through starvation or opium. In New Atlantis (1627),

British philosopher Francis Bacon (1561-1626) writes that physicians are "not only to

restore the health, but to mitigate pain and dolours; and not only when such mitigation

may conduce to recovery, but when it may serve to make a fair and easy passage."

One of the most cited contemporarly discussions on the subject of euthanasia is

"Active and Passive Euthanasia" (1975) by University of Alabama philosophy professor

James Rachels. Rachels argues that there is no moral difference between actively killing a

patient and passively allowing the patient to die. Thus, it is less cruel for physicians to use

active procedures of mercy killing. Rachels argues that, from a strictly moral standpoint,

there is no difference between passive and active euthanasia. He begins by noting that the

AMA prohibits active euthanasia, yet allows passive euthanasia. He offers two arguments

for why physicians should place passive euthanasia in the same category as active

euthanasia. First, techniques of passive euthanasia prolong the suffering of the patient, for

it takes longer to passively allow the patient to die than it would if active measures were

taken. In the mean time, the patient is in unbearable pain. Since in either case the decision

has been made to bring on an early death, it is cruel to adopt the longer procedure.

Second, Rachels argues that the passive euthanasia distinction encourages physicians to

make life and death decisions on irrelevant grounds. For example, Down’s syndrome

infants often have correctable congenital defects; but decisions are made to forego

corrective surgery (and thus let the infant die) because the parents do not want a child

with Down’s syndrome. The active-passive euthanasia distinction merely encourages these

groundless decisions.

Rachels observes that people think that actively killing someone is morally worse

than passively letting someone die. However, they do not differ since both have the same

outcome: the death of the patient on humanitarian grounds. The difference between the

two is accentuated because we frequently hear of terrible cases of active killings, but not

of passive killings. Rachels anticipates two criticisms to his argument. First, it may be

objected that, with passive euthanasia techniques, the physician does not have to do

anything to bring on the patient’s death. Rachels replies that letting the patient die involves

performing an action by not performing other actions (similar to the act of insulting

someone by not shaking their hand). Second, it may be objected that Rachels’s point is

only of academic interest since, in point of fact, active euthanasia is illegal. Rachels replies

that physicians should nevertheless be aware that the law is forcing on them an

indefensible moral doctrine.

In "Active and Passive Euthanasia: An Impertinent Distinction?" (1977), Thomas

Sullivan argues that no intentional mercy killing (active or passive) is morally permissible.

However, extraordinary means of prolonging life may be discontinued even though the

patient’s death may be foreseen. Sullivan argues that Rachels’s example of the Down’s

syndrome infant is misleading, since most doctors would perform corrective surgery since

it would be clearly wrong to let the infant die. Further, most reflective people will agree

with Rachels that there is no moral distinction between killing someone and allowing

someone to die. According to Sullivan, Rachels’s biggest mistake is that he misunderstands

the position of the AMA. The AMA maintains that all intentional mercy killing is wrong,

either active or passive. Although extraordinary procedures for prolonging life may be

discontinued for terminally ill patients, these procedures are ones that are both

inconvenient and ineffective for the patient. If death occurs more quickly by discontinuing

extraordinary procedures, it is only a byproduct. In short, to aim at death (either actively

or passively) is always wrong, but it is not wrong to merely foresee death when

discontinuing extraordinary procedures.

In a rejoinder essay, "More Impertinent Distinctions and a Defense of Active

Euthanasia" (1978), Rachels responds to Sullivan’s charges. Rachels begins noting that

Catholic thinkers, such as Sullivan, typically oppose mercy killing. However, Sullivan

himself concedes that it is sometimes pointless to prolong the dying process. Rachels

focuses on two specific points made by Sullivan. First, Sullivan argues that it is important

for the physician to have the correct intention (insofar as it is immoral to aim at the death

of a patient, but not immoral to foresee his death). Rachels counters that the physician’s

intention is irrelevant to whether the act is right or wrong. For, suppose two physicians

perform identical acts of withholding treatment, with one physician aiming at the death of

the patient, and the other only foreseeing it. Since the acts are identical, one cannot be

judged right and the other wrong. Second, Sullivan argues that physicians are justified

only in withholding extraordinary procedures. However, Rachels argues, to determine

whether a given procedure is ordinary or extraordinary, we must first determine whether

the patient’s life should be prolonged.

Rachels continues by offering several arguments in favor of the moral permissibility

of active euthanasia. The first is an argument from mercy. He begins by describing a

classic case where a person named Jack is terminally ill and in unbearable pain. Jack’s

condition alone is a compelling reason for the permissibility of active mercy killing. A

more formal utilitarian version of this argument is that active euthanasia is morally

permissible since it produces the greatest happiness. Critics have traditionally attacked

utilitarianism for focusing too heavily on happiness, and not enough on other intrinsic

goods, such as justice and rights. Accordingly, Rachels offers a revised utilitarian version:

active euthanasia is permissible since it promotes the best interests of everyone (such as

Jack, Jack’s wife, and the hospital staff). Rachels also argues that the golden rule supports

active euthanasia insofar as we would want others to put us out of our misery if we were

in a situation like Jack’s. A more formal version of this argument is based on Kant’s

categorical imperative ("act only on that maxim by which you can at the same time will

that it should become a universal law"). The categorical imperative supports active

euthanasia since no one would willfully universalize a rule which condemns people to

unbearable pain before death. Rachels closes noting an irony: the golden rule supports

active euthanasia, yet the Catholic church has traditionally opposed it.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Robert M. Baird, ed., Euthanasia: The Moral Issues (Prometheus, 1989). John A. Behnke,

The Dilemmas of Euthanasia (Doubleday, 1975).

A.B. Downing, ed., Euthanasia and the Right to Death (Humanities Press, 1969).

J. Glover, Causing Deaths and Saving Lives (Penguin, 1987)

Dennis J. Horan, Death, Dying and Euthanasia (Greenwood Press, 1980).

D. Humphry, The Right to Die: Understanding Euthanasia (Harper and Row, 1986).

Marvin Kohl, ed. Beneficent Euthanasia (Prometheus, 1975).

H. Kuhse, The Sanctity-of-Life Doctrine in Medicine: A Critique (Oxford University

Press, 1987).

Daniel C. Maguire, Death by Choice (Doubleday, 1974).

James Rachels, The End of Life: Euthanasia and Morality (Oxford University Press,

1987).

Bonnie Steinbock, Killing and Letting Die (Prentice-Hall, 1980).

Richard M. Zaner, Death: Beyond Whole-Brain Criteria (Kluwer Academic Publishers,

1988).

Додати в блог або на сайт

Цей текст може містити помилки.

A Free essays | Essay
17.3кб. | download | скачати


Нажми чтобы узнать.
© Усі права захищені
написати до нас
Рейтинг@Mail.ru