Primitive Man and Civilized Man are Alike in Many Areas
All things found in an ancient civilization were actually brought to them by the collective
discoveries support the idea of an awareness of and homage paid to the spirits and natural
( The Third Chimpanzee, p 223 ) We can relate the life styles of these remote people, who
have lived many thousands of years cut off from the rest of civilization, to our ancestors
who lived in prehistoric times.
the things we attribute to early civilizations had its beginnings in our common prehistoric
religion, government and organization.
God-kings, that is kings who took on the mantle of a God, ruled early civilizations.
They were worshipped by the masses, and acted as intermediary between the forces that
intermediary to act as go-between on behalf of the people. He or she would have been a
Chimpanzee, p 287 )
Every force of nature was a mystery to early man, as it was to those that lived in
the first, early civilizations, and therefore a belief developed that those forces needed to be
ages in one way or another. ( The Book Of The Ancient World, p 8 )
Cave paintings in Lascaux, France that date to 17,000 BC, have been found that
animal representations. These rites by early man were held to either bring success to the
hunt, or to thank the Gods for their success at a recent hunt. We see that animal worship
made its way into early civilizations also. Animal representations have been found in
and incorporated animals into their worship of Gods. An early example of this is
Egyptian history. On it, Hathor, the cow-headed goddess who protects the city of the
dead is present. Also present is a hawk or falcon, symbol of the god Horus. Another
grotesque creature, part dwarf and part lion. His job was to protect the family, and was
found in many homes. On judgment day, an Egyptian believed he would face the Jackal
the sinner. If someone lived a virtuous life, the scales would balance, and the person
Fertility and a renewal of things, birth of people and animals, the seasons, and of
vegetation used for food sources were also very important to early man, as it was to
so close to the center, or womb of the earth, more animals would be born. ( Everyday Life
Through The Ages, p 17 ) Early civilizations also focused on fertility, and created Gods to
ensure continued fertility of the population. In early Mesopotamia, the Sumarians
worshipped Ninhursag, or Mother Earth. She was the source of all life, and from her
major city in Mesopotamia. The most important of these was a spring ritual called the
between the King, who took the role of Dumuzi, an early ruler of the town Erech. A high
priestess would take the roll of Inanna, who was the principle deity of Erech. This ritual
the land, and the king?s long life. ( Cradle Of Civilization, p 106 ) Gods of fertility are
and Cupid and Venus, by the Romans.
The concept of a life after death has been with mankind at least since we dwelled
in caves. Archeologist?s have uncovered evidence in cave dwellings that support this
theory. Stone Age graves have been found that contain not only the remains of a person,
?throwing sticks? have been found in many graves. These are items that would be needed
Ages, p 17 ) Fire, among other ?magical? things, would have been worshipped by a cave
dwelling people. ( The Book Of The Ancient World, p 6 ) We find that the Romans had a
strong belief in an afterlife also. Pharaoh would be entombed with riches, food, and
servants to provide for him in the afterlife. ( The Book Of The Ancient World, p 25 )
The word government comes from the Latin word, gubernare, which means, ?to
person in the tribe, and therefore respected. People tend to follow those that are
respected. ( The Third Chimpanzee, p 220 ) It might be that the leader of an early culture
might well have been the best hunter, organizer and the strongest man in the village. In
ancient Mesopotamia, Greece, and Rome, just to name a few, the kings or rulers were
anointed as God-Kings. It is not unthinkable to consider that somewhere in early human
those of the tribal leader. This would have allowed a tribal leader to, ?steer the ship?
world these stone age people lived in. It has been thought that stone age man relied
has theory has recently been found to be inaccurate. Ice age relics now support the view
that stone age man was more sophisticated that previously thought. Rock are and tools
have been discovered in Australia which date to 100,000 years ago. (The Way Of The
World, p 19, 20)
Pebbles and other stone surfaces have been found with markings engraved
University was able to decode these engraved markings. Dr. Marshack discovered that
the markings were notations that, kept track of sequences of events that recur: the regular
patterns of animal, bird, and fish behavior tied to the seasons, for example, that are to be
seen on the earth and in the heavens. ( The Way Of The World, p 19, 20 ) This would be
the type of information that would be observed and shared with others over a long period
This new evidence puts doubt to the previous theory that writing first developed in
ancient Mesopotamia. While it may be true that writing may have been more thoroughly
developed there, writing in some form has existed since at least the Ice Age. A culture
that has developed some form of writing, would certainly be advanced enough to have
established some form of government, even if it were rudimentary. (National Geographic,
Strong evidence exists that prehistoric man possessed the organizational skill
While a group of hunter-gatherer people would not need established roads, permanent
possess the skills that would be necessary should that lifestyle change. Cave dwellings
entering the cave. (The Cambridge Ancient History, page 79-80) Several primitive
cultures have been found in the past century. These cultures developed separate from
modern civilization since the dawn of their culture. Most possess the ability to build
rudimentary structures, have a language that is their own, unique language, and to
have been conducted as far back as the Pharaoh, Psammeticus. In this experiment,
documented by Herodotus, the ancient historian, Psammeticus ordered a shepherd to raise
oldest language known. After years of nothing but meaningless babble, the shepherd
reported to the Pharaoh that one of the boys had said the word, ?becos,? which meant
bread in the Phrygian language spoken in Turkey. While some doubt is cast on the validity
boy of Aveyron, remain virtually speechless and won?t invent or discover a language.
exchange of ideas, language would develop early if the people who lived in that
type of monkey, have at least ten putative ?words,? that the troop use and understand.
(The Third Chimpanzee, page 155) If members of the animal kingdom rely on ?words?
for survival, it would not be surprising to find that early cave dwellers would have
developed a complex language to help ensure their survival.
At the dawn of civilization, these skills that, while rudimentary, would have already
been known by man. As farming and domestication of animals began to replace the
hunter-gatherer lifestyle, improvements in building techniques, manufacture of needed
goods, and established roads would have taken on more importance than ever before. By
the time of the first civilization, these techniques would have been well known and fairly
well refined. What was needed was better organization and better communication to bring
all of the already established processes together.
While it is clear that the early civilizations took the processes that were already in
place and built upon them, every ?piece of the puzzle? was already available to them.
Established government hierarchy, religious beliefs, and an organizational structure would
have already been established. It seems incredulous that any civilization could come into
being without a culture or cultures already being advanced to the point where the roots of
a civilization could take hold. Working backwards, an advanced culture could not come
into existence without the sophisticated framework that an early culture would grow into.
an early township or community, and organizational skills, establishment of religion, and a
working form of government was already necessary for a tribal culture whether
considered sophisticated or not, to survive.
Benton, Jenetta Rebold and Robert DiYammi. 1998 Arts and Culture, An Introduction To
The Humanitites. New Jersey. Pretence Hall
Briggs, Asa. 1992 Everyday Life Through The Ages. Berkely Square, London Readers
Diamond, Jared. 1992 The Third Chimpanzee. New York. Harper
Kramer, Samuel. 1971 Cradle Of Civilization. Morristown, New Jersey. Time Life Books
Mills, Dorothy. 1951 The Book Of The Ancient World. New York. G.P. Putnam?s Sons